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Hormones and Glands Natalie Schieder and Samantha Schulz Alden High School - Alden, NY - 14004 - Mr. Kasper’s Block 1 Biology Class. Results. Abstract. Results. Conclusions.

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Hormones and Glands

Natalie Schieder and Samantha Schulz

Alden High School - Alden, NY - 14004 - Mr. Kasper’s Block 1 Biology Class





In the body, there are many types of glands and hormones. For the body to maintain homeostasis, the glands must produce certain hormones for each specific cell. Glands can be Endocrine or Exocrine and then break down into specific types. Glands release hormones for different types of cells to perform certain tasks for the body. Exocrine glands are glands that retain ducts to body surfaces. There are many activities for glands to perform. They also release enzymes, metabolites, and other molecules. Both systems may release hormones, but the Exocrine glands most likely release enzymes for the body to function. But the pancreas is the only gland that these systems share and it plays out a major role in releasing hormones to target cells.

To end, Endocrine and Exocrine glands are very different in the way they transport hormones, but they are alike in how they help the body maintain homeostasis. Hormones are the body’s chemical messengers that are sent to certain target cells. But mainly, hormones help keep the body functioning and in balance. The glands that secrete these hormones are always working and may send hormones through ducts, if it’s an exocrine gland, or directly through the bloodstream if it’s endocrine. The pancreas creates the Insulin hormone which maintain blood sugar levels and help properly digest the food a human consumes. Like all glands, each one produces a hormone that is for a direct cell to respond to.

Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work slowly, over time, and affect many different processes, including

Growth and development

Metabolism - how your body gets energy from the foods you eat

Sexual function



Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. In addition, men produce hormones in their testes and women produce them in their ovaries. The ovary hormone Estrogens, works to create growth promotion, maintain elasticity of connective tissues, preserve bone mass and, and vascular compliance. For the male testes, the hormone testosterone, creates growth of male secondary sexual characteristics, sperm production and libido. It i

The hormone that works for the pancreas, is called Insulin and it helps the pancreas achieve to regulate blood sugar levels. Most hormones are Steroid Hormones synthesized from cholesterol, or Protein hormones, which are synthesized by amino acids. But in order for a hormone to reach its target, it must received by the binging site of receptor molecules which are either proteins, or Glycoproteins. The Pituitary gland secretes the Luteinizing hormone, which In females this LH acts on the ovary to stimulate the production of estrogens and induce ovulation. In males this LH acts on the testis to stimulate the production of testosterone.


  • The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the skull between the optic nerves. The pituitary gland secretes hormones. Hormones are chemicals that travel through our blood stream. The pituitary is sometimes referred to as the "master gland" as it controls hormone functions such as our temperature, thyroid activity, growth during childhood, urine production, testosterone production in males and ovulation and estrogen production in females. In effect the gland functions as our thermostat that controls all other glands that are responsible for hormone secretion. The gland is a critical part of our ability to respond to the environment most often without our knowledge.

  • The pituitary gland actually functions as two separate compartments an anterior portion (adenohypohysis-hormone producing) and the posterior gland (neurohypophysis). The anterior gland really is made of separate collection of individual cells that act as functional units that are dedicated to produce a specific regulatory hormone messenger or factor. These factors are secreted in response to the outside environment and the internal bodily responses to this environment. These pituitary factors then travel through a rich blood work network into the blood stream and eventually reach their specific target gland. They then stimulate the target gland to secrete the appropriate type and amount of hormone so the body can respond to the environment correctly. Similar to the cortisol factory there are additional factories: Growth Hormone, Prolactin,Gonadotropin, Thyroid.

  • Although the pituitary gland is apart of the Endocrine system,they both have one gland in common. The exocrine gland secretes digestive enzymes. These enzymes are secreted into a network of ducts that join the main pancreatic duct, which runs the length of the pancreas. The endocrine gland, which is made up of the islets of Langerhans, secretes hormones into the bloodstream. The enzymes secreted by the exocrine gland in the pancreas help break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and acids in the duodenum. These enzymes travel down the pancreatic duct into the bile duct in an inactive form. When they enter the duodenum, they are activated. The exocrine tissue also secretes a bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid in the duodenum.

  • The hormones secreted by the endocrine gland in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon (which regulate the level of glucose in the blood), and somatostatin (which prevents the release of the other two hormones). The Pancreas gland is major for both types because it has digestive and hormonal functions.

Literature Cited









To start, the Endocrine and Exocrine glands produce hormones for their main priority, to reach cells. Endocrine glands like the Thyroid can be large and obvious, but others are small with very little duties to fulfill. Exocrine glands are buried further into tissues, but when they act out their job, there are ducts to connect them to the surface. There are different types of Exocrine that are simple, which are tubular, branch tubular, coiled tubular, and branched alveolar. But more advanced types are the Alveolar.

Steroid HormonesProtein Hormones

Exocrine glands manufacture and release hormones. These hormones are transported to the surround area, and to the blood. A specific receptor is then needed for that hormone to do its specified job. The ducts may be simple or compound. Simple ducts are ducts that are single, while compound ducts accommodate more areas, because they branch out. These ducts can coil and turn in different ways giving rise to sub-classifications, depending on the shape of the ducts. Classifications of exocrine ducts are merocrine glands, holocrine glands and apocrine glands. Secretions in merocrine glands are generated by intact cells. In holocrine glands, cells are permitted to break up to produce compounds, and discharge desired secretions. Apocrine glands dispense the cells with their secretion. Cells are sprouting, and are replaced when needed. These glands secrete proteins or mucus depending on where they are located.

Materials and Methods


For the completion of this project, the class had to use computers to research topics on glands and hormones. We had to research the Exocrine and Endocrine glands to discover how they secrete their hormones for the body.

All of our thanks in this project should be projected to our biology teacher. The education in this project has been absorbed very well thanks to our families because their support is more thank we could ask for.

Exocrine Duct

Pancreas Gland