Download
453 chapter 4 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
453 Chapter 4 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
453 Chapter 4

453 Chapter 4

60 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

453 Chapter 4

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 453 Chapter 4 Before there was English…

  2. Food for Thought • Consider and explain… • Chinese: ma = ma = Mother • German: bam = bong = bell’s sound • French: fille = filly = girl • Bantu: nguba = goober = peanut • Russian: brat = brother = brother • Why are there so many similarities?

  3. Food 4 Thot 2 • To what extent can we explain why languages change? Consider: • Time • Geography • Social factors

  4. Indo-European • AKA: Proto Indo-European • 3,000 - 4,000 BC • Farming culture • Religious • Elaborate burial sites • ~ Northern Europe // Southern Russia • Sir William Jones

  5. Language Family • Mother – Daughter • Families – Family Trees • BUT: • Birth • Intentional branching • Death (?)

  6. Language Classifications • Isolating • Agglutinative • Incorporative • Inflective OR • Genetic

  7. Reconstruction • Best guess based on comparative study • Marked by * • *kmtom  “hundred”

  8. Cognates • Similar in form • Similar in menaing IE Latin Greek Old Eng T.Eng *bher- fer- pher- ber- bear

  9. Inflections • Nominative: I saw a cookie • Vocative: Sally, give me a cookie • Accusative: She gave me a cookie • Genitive: It’s now my cookie • Dative: She gave me a cookie • Ablative: I should avoid cookies • Locative: I should put them away • Instrumental: I eat with my hands

  10. Word Order • Greenberg • Lehmann • VO … OV

  11. I-E  Germanic • New words • Loss of inflection (not pres/past) • Dental suffix • Adjectival declension • First syllable stress • Vowels o  α // ᾱ  ō • Consonants  Grimm’s Law

  12. Grimm’s Law • bh  b • dh  d • gh  g • p  f • t  Ө • k  h • b  p • d  t • g  k

  13. Verner’s Law • Proto-Germanic voiceless fricatives • Become voiced • In voiced environment • Except • Word initial • Adjacent to voiceless sound • I-E stress on first syllable

  14. Exercises • 4.2 • 4.8 • 4.9 • 4.11 – Part of each • 4.12 • 4.14