Chapter 13 Classification of Marine Organism
Meet the Players: • Classification of Marine Organisms All organisms on the Earth are classified into one of 5 kingdoms.
The kingdoms are divided into Phyla (singular is phylum) or Divisions (for the Kingdom Plantae). • Phyla and Divisions are further divided.
Divisions are as follows: • Kingdom • Phylum or Division • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species
Naming Species • A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce viable young. • Each type of organism on the planet is given a 2-fold name that includes the Genus (always capitalized) followed by the species (never capitalized). • The two words must be underlined or italicized. • Humans are classified, for example, as Homo sapiens.
The 5 kingdoms and their principle characteristic(s) are: Monera - simple one-celled organisms, and the cells have no cell nucleus
Protista - simple one-celled organisms, and the cells do have a cell nucleus
Monera: bacteria and blue-green algae (bluegreen slime in ponds, puddles, aquariums) • Protista: foraminifers, radiolarians, amoeba • Fungi: mushrooms • Metaphytae: moss, ferns, trees, grass, etc etc • Metazoa: yourself, your seals, sea lions, bird, whales, etc.
A simplified view of how the various marine phyla are related to one another by evolution is given on your textbook. • Below is a short list of important marine organisms, giving the phyla/divisions which we will discuss repeatedly for the rest of the semester as important players in the oceans.
I. Monera • Phylum Cyanophyta: these are the bacteria that can photosynthesize: the most primitive types of plants. • Phylum Schizophyta: bacteria that can't photosynthesize
II. Protista • Phylum Protozoa: animals of the Protist kingdom. • For the most part, these don't photosynthesize. • Phylum Chrysophyta: Forams, rads • golden algae: • diatoms, • coccolithophores
Phylum Pyrrophyta: golden brown algae: • dinoflagellates, • zooxanthellae
III. Metaphytae • Algae: 3 phyla of algae, each named for their color: red, brown and green. • red algae live in shallow water; • brown algae include kelp; • green algae may make a shell of calcite; include Penicillus, Halimeda
Phylum Tracheophyta: vascular plants: have some vessel (tube) that transports water from one place to another • in the oceans, these live along the coast and include grasses and mangroves
IV. Metazoa - dozens! • Phylum Porifera: sponges (pass the screen test) • Phylum Ctenophora: ('c' before 't' is silent) combjellies • Phylum Cnidaria: stinging tentacles: ('c' before 'n' is silent) • coral animals, • jellyfish, • sea anemones
Phylum Bryozoa: • bryozoans are colonial organisms • Phylum Brachiopoda: brachiopods look like clams superficially, but are more primitive.
Phylum Mollusca: animals with a mantle, a thick, leathery skin • Class Gastropoda: snails Class Mollusca: clams, oysters, mussels, scallops • Class Cephalopoda: octopuses, squids, nautiluses
Phylum Arthropoda: 'jointed legs', hard outer skeleton • Class Merostomata: horseshoe crabs • Class Crustacea: copepods, barnacles, krill, shrimp, lobster, crabs
Phylum Echinodermata: water vascular system-totally bizarre • Class Asteroidea: starfish Class Echinoidea: sea urchins (spines!!), sand dollars, echinoids • Class Holothuroidea: sea cucumbers • Class Ophiuoidea: brittle stars • Class Crinoidea: crinoids or sea lilies-lords of the reef in the Paleozoic
Phylum Protochordata: tunicates • Phylum Chordata: animals with a notochord- a long bundle of nerves • Class Pisces: Fish: have gills • Jawless fish: most primitive; lampreyscartilaginous fish: sharks, skates and rays • bony fish: 1000s: salmon, tuna, seahorse, solefish, marlin, swordfish, etc.
Class Reptilia (Reptiles): lay eggs and have a leathery skin: turtles, snakes • Class Aves (Birds): feathers, lay eggs: • pelicans, • albatross, • penguins, • puffins, etc.
Class Mammalia (Mammals): only a few of us warm-blooded hairiest have made it back to the sea: • whales • porpoises • manatees, • seals, • otters, • walruses