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Chapter 13. Classification of Marine Organism. Meet the Players:. Classification of Marine Organisms All organisms on the Earth are classified into one of 5 kingdoms . . The kingdoms are divided into Phyla (singular is phylum ) or Divisions (for the Kingdom Plantae).

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Classification of Marine Organism

meet the players
Meet the Players:
  • Classification of Marine Organisms All organisms on the Earth are classified into one of 5 kingdoms.
The kingdoms are divided into Phyla (singular is phylum) or Divisions (for the Kingdom Plantae).
  • Phyla and Divisions are further divided.
divisions are as follows
Divisions are as follows:
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum or Division
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
naming species
Naming Species
  • A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce viable young.
  • Each type of organism on the planet is given a 2-fold name that includes the Genus (always capitalized) followed by the species (never capitalized).
  • The two words must be underlined or italicized.
  • Humans are classified, for example, as Homo sapiens.
The 5 kingdoms and their principle characteristic(s) are:

Monera - simple one-celled organisms, and the cells have no cell nucleus

Monera: bacteria and blue-green algae (bluegreen slime in ponds, puddles, aquariums)
  • Protista: foraminifers, radiolarians, amoeba
  • Fungi: mushrooms
  • Metaphytae: moss, ferns, trees, grass, etc etc
  • Metazoa: yourself, your seals, sea lions, bird, whales, etc.
A simplified view of how the various marine phyla are related to one another by evolution is given on your textbook.
  • Below is a short list of important marine organisms, giving the phyla/divisions which we will discuss repeatedly for the rest of the semester as important players in the oceans.
i monera
I. Monera
  • Phylum Cyanophyta: these are the bacteria that can photosynthesize: the most primitive types of plants.
  • Phylum Schizophyta: bacteria that can't photosynthesize
ii protista
II. Protista
  • Phylum Protozoa: animals of the Protist kingdom.
  • For the most part, these don't photosynthesize.
  • Phylum Chrysophyta: Forams, rads
  • golden algae:
  • diatoms,
  • coccolithophores
Phylum Pyrrophyta: golden brown algae:
  • dinoflagellates,
  • zooxanthellae
iii metaphytae
III. Metaphytae
  • Algae: 3 phyla of algae, each named for their color: red, brown and green.
  • red algae live in shallow water;
  • brown algae include kelp;
  • green algae may make a shell of calcite; include Penicillus, Halimeda
Phylum Tracheophyta: vascular plants: have some vessel (tube) that transports water from one place to another
  • in the oceans, these live along the coast and include grasses and mangroves
iv metazoa dozens
IV. Metazoa - dozens!
  • Phylum Porifera: sponges (pass the screen test)
  • Phylum Ctenophora: ('c' before 't' is silent) combjellies
  • Phylum Cnidaria: stinging tentacles: ('c' before 'n' is silent)
  • coral animals,
  • jellyfish,
  • sea anemones
Phylum Bryozoa:
  • bryozoans are colonial organisms
  • Phylum Brachiopoda: brachiopods look like clams superficially, but are more primitive.
Phylum Mollusca: animals with a mantle, a thick, leathery skin
  • Class Gastropoda: snails Class Mollusca: clams, oysters, mussels, scallops
  • Class Cephalopoda: octopuses, squids, nautiluses
Phylum Arthropoda: 'jointed legs', hard outer skeleton
  • Class Merostomata: horseshoe crabs
  • Class Crustacea: copepods, barnacles, krill, shrimp, lobster, crabs
Phylum Echinodermata: water vascular system-totally bizarre
  • Class Asteroidea: starfish Class Echinoidea: sea urchins (spines!!), sand dollars, echinoids
  • Class Holothuroidea: sea cucumbers
  • Class Ophiuoidea: brittle stars
  • Class Crinoidea: crinoids or sea lilies-lords of the reef in the Paleozoic
Phylum Protochordata: tunicates
  • Phylum Chordata: animals with a notochord- a long bundle of nerves
  • Class Pisces: Fish: have gills
    • Jawless fish: most primitive; lampreyscartilaginous fish: sharks, skates and rays
    • bony fish: 1000s: salmon, tuna, seahorse, solefish, marlin, swordfish, etc.
Class Reptilia (Reptiles): lay eggs and have a leathery skin: turtles, snakes
  • Class Aves (Birds): feathers, lay eggs:
  • pelicans,
  • albatross,
  • penguins,
  • puffins, etc.
Class Mammalia (Mammals): only a few of us warm-blooded hairiest have made it back to the sea:
  • whales
  • porpoises
  • manatees,
  • seals,
  • otters,
  • walruses