Origins of a New Nation Unit 1 Pre-Columbia America
Unit 1 Objectives • AH1.H.1.3 - Use Historical Analysis and Interpretation to: • 1. Identify issues and problems in the past. • 2. Consider multiple perspectives of various peoples in the past. • 3. Analyze cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation. • AH1.H.2.1 - Analyze key political, economic, and social turning points from colonization • AH1.H.3.1 - Explain how environmental, cultural and economic factors influenced the patterns of migration and settlement within the U.S. before the Civil War
Unit 1 – Pre-Columbian America – Building a Colony • Essential Questions: • How did civilizations develop in the United States? • How did the geography and climate of the United States affect Native Americans? • How did early people in the Americas adapt to their environment? • What were the ways in which the peoples of the New and Old Worlds affected each other when their societies came in contact? • What were the changes taking place in western Europe that resulted in widespread interest in colonization? • What were the connections that existed between what happened in the Americas and what was happening in the rest of the world?
World History Review • Early Middle Ages – 500-1000 • Isolation of Europe • Feudalism • Powerful Roman Catholic Church
Quick Review of European History • Feudal System/Hierarchy (manor system) • Serfs- tied to land • Priests- Importance of church- Pope, Vernacular Bible, cathedrals… • Royalty- Kings, queens, knights…POWER!!
Quick Review of European History • Loss of power of the King- • King John and the Magna Carta- • Emergence of the Rights of Nobles and common people
Towards the Modern World 2 • Late Middle Ages – 1000-1300 • Growth of cities- Urbanization • London, Paris, Rome • Rise of monarchs • Divine right of kings • Growth of Education and Universities • Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge
Quick Review of European History • Growth of middle class- • Development of business, merchants, guilds • Why important? • The Black Plague • What changes did it bring??
Towards the Modern World • Late Middle Ages – 1000-1300 • Crusades • Christian knights and soldiers headed to the ‘Holy Lands’ to dispel the “Infidels” • Richard the Lion-Hearted left England as a warrior king • Robin Hood’s King • Trade w/Asia and the Muslim world • Spices via South Seas islands • Silk road via today’s Afghanistan • Coffee via today’s Turkey
The Renaissance Mid-14th Century-15th Century • A time of new thinking and expanding knowledge • Literally means “rebirth” • Began in Italy and spread throughout Europe • Science, humanism, art, literature.. • Guttenberg and his printing press became a major part of this new spreading of knowledge • Movable type and mass production of books • “You mean I can read my own Bible???”
The Reformation • Martin Luther • His ideas shook the Church’s foundation in 1517 • Nailed 95 Theses on the door in Wittenberg • Protestantism born • Church of England, Methodism, Baptists, Lutheranism… • Why important to colonial Americans??
Towards a Modern European • Age of Exploration • Seafaring and Military technology improve • Competition among European nations • Portugal • First European nation to be a seagoing power • Prince Henry the Navigator • Spain- • Became the most powerful nation • 3 G’s- God, Gold, Glory • Columbus, Isabella, and Ferdinand • Exploration of the New World
Line of Demarcation • Line drawn by Pope Alexander VI in 1493-1494 to assign colonial spheres of interest in the Americas to Portugal and Spain.
Who Got What?? • Portugal was assigned • Brazil • the west and east coasts of Africa • the southern and eastern shores of Asia • and the East Indies • Spain was assigned • the Americas • and lands encountered by or to be encountered by Columbus • the Philippines
How did the Native Americans Get Here? 1. 2. 3. 4.
How did the Native Americans Get Here? • Land Bridge Beringia 2. Land/sea route from East 3.Land/sea route from West 4. Sea route from South Seas
Where did thesetribes settle? • Northwest coast • California coast • Mid Continental plateaus • The Great Basin • Southwest • The Great Plains • The Northeast • The Southeast
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Far Northern tribes • Lived in the NW coastal edges of North America • Today area of Alaska and NW Canada • Lived a nomadic lifestyle • Dependent upon fish for survival • Followed game from place to place • Today’s descendants are the Inuit and Aleut of the far north
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Northwestern tribes • Settled along the shores, rivers, and creeks of southeastern Alaska to northern California. • Developed a maritime culture; were expert canoe builders. • Developed a high culture without the benefit of agriculture or pottery • Tribes lived in large, complex communities, constructed multifamily cedar plank houses. • Were highly skilled in crafts and woodworking. • Placed an inordinate value on accumulated wealth and property. • Held lavish feasts called potlatchesto display their wealth and social status.
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • California tribes- • Lived in what today is the state of California • Varying cultures which were adapted for deserts and/or coast • One tribe was called the Costanoans (which means "coast people" in Spanish) • Constructed permanent dwellings made up of a variety of materials including redwood, pinecones, bark, and leaves as well as earthen pits • Foods varied according to climate and area of settlement
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Plateau/Mid American Tribes • Lived in Ohio valley, central Mississippi, and Illinois River Valleys. • Were both hunter-gatherers and farmers. • Villages were built along rivers, characterized by large conical or dome-shaped burial moundsand elaborate earthen walls enclosing large oval or rectangular areas. • Were highly skilled craftsmen in pottery, stone, sculpture, and metalworking, especially copper • Engaged in widespread trade all over northern America extending west to the Rocky Mountains
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Great Basin Tribes • Due to the limited vegetation in the Great Basin, Indians in this area were primarily hunter-gatherers. • The main food source for early native peoples was pine nuts, acorns, wild beans, and other local plants • Meat for the natives in this area was supplied through fishing • Because of the limited number and variety of trees available, wood for fires, as well as tool making, was also a valuable commodity. • In the winter, they lived in wickiups -small cone-shaped structures constructed of a pole framework covered with sod, bark, grass, animal skins, brush or reeds. • During the summer months, a lean-to or windbreak made of brush provided comfortable living quarters.
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Southwest Tribes- • Settled in present-day Arizona. • Were desert farmers. • Cultivated corn. • Were first to grow cotton in the Southwest. • Wove cotton fabrics. • Built pit houses and later multi-storied buildings (pueblos). • Constructed vast network of irrigation systems. • Major canals were over 30 miles long. • Built ball courts and truncated pyramids similar to those found in Middle America. • First in world known to master the art of etching • Etched shells with fermented Saguaro cactus juice).
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Plains Indians • Primarily associated with the Great Plains area. • Were bison/American buffalohunters. • Developed a delicately flaked spear point • Adopted mass-hunting technique (jump-kill) to drive animal herds off a cliff. • First to use grinding stones to grind seeds and meat.
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Northeast Tribes- • Also known as “Woodlands tribes” by some historians • Area was home to vast forests and lakes and many types of food • Iroquois were largest and most important tribe • Men were hunters and warriors, providers and protectors of the community. • Women owned the houses, gathered wild foods, cooked, made baskets and clothing, and cared for the children • Lacrosse began as the northeastern Indians' ball-and-stick game • Prepared men for war and reinforced religious beliefs
Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Southeastern Tribes- • Extended from Mississippi Valley into Alabama, Georgia (Etowah Mounds), and Florida. • They were also known as Temple Mound Builders. • Constructed large flat-topped earthen mounds on which were built wooden temples and meeting houses and residences of chiefs and priests • Built huge cedar pole circles (woodhenges) for astronomical observations. • Were highly skilled hunters with bow and arrow. • Practiced large-scale farming of corn, beans, and squash.
Similarities Between Tribes • Kinship and clans • Often matriarchal connections • “Earth” religions • Oral history traditions • Barter as form of payment • No money • Beliefs of land ownership • No one owned the land • Led to dispute with Europeans and later Americans
Differences Between Tribes • Way of life adapted to environment • Some farmed, some hunted and fished, some were nomads • Many different culture groups existed
Africa- A diverse land • West African life- three types of vegetation made tribes’ culture different • the Savanna, rich with resources • West coast- rainforest • Desert- nomad
Africa- A diverse land 2 • A rich diversity of people and culture developed • Trade along coasts began with Portuguese traders • Salt, gold, later slaves
Key Information • Oral traditions developed • Very little written records exist • Storytellers were important to tribes • Remembered their history • Importance of elders and women
Key Differences with Europeans • Many Religions in Africa unlike in Europe • Catholic Church was dominant in Europe • Abundance of land in Africa, but many rivers were impossible to navigate • Land is scarce in Europe and generally owned by the wealthy and powerful • Intra-African Slavery- • If captured within Africa slave became a part of new culture • Generally integration by slaves was not possible in Europe
Birth of the Atlantic WorldColumbus’ voyage led to the reshaping of every culture Causes of Voyage • Quest for knowledge of the world • Wish to bring Christianity to other lands and people • Desire for new trade route to the East • Rivalry with Portugal • Desire for Wealth Effects of Voyage • Columbian Exchange • Conquest of Native Americans • Search for Northwest Passage • Establishing European Empires in the Americas • Death of Native Americans b/c of disease • Enslavement of Africans • Blending of cultures in America
Effect on Native Americans • At first, the Indians were helpful • Pocahontas • Squanto • Disease • Smallpox, measles, chicken pox, influenza, tuberculosis, typhus • Conflict • Powhatan fight • King Philip’s War
"With my own eyes I saw Spaniards cut off the nose, hands and ears of Indians, male and female, without provocation, merely because it pleased them to do it. ... Likewise, I saw how they summoned the caciques and the chief rulers to come, assuring them safety, and when they peacefully came, they were taken captive and burned."
"[The Spaniards] took babies from their mothers' breasts, grabbing them by the feet and smashing their heads againt rocks. ...They built a long gibbet, low enough for the toes to touch the ground and prevent strangling, and hanged thirteen [natives] at a time in honor of Christ Our Saviour and the twelve Apostles. ...Then, straw was wrapped around their torn bodies and they were burned alive."
Reasons for Building Overseas Colonies • Add wealth and power to home country • Source of valuable raw materials • Gold and silver • New markets for goods manufactured in home country • Base for Privateers (Sea Dogs) • European overpopulation