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Origins of a New Nation

Origins of a New Nation

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Origins of a New Nation

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  1. Origins of a New Nation Unit 1 Pre-Columbia America

  2. Unit 1 Objectives • AH1.H.1.3 - Use Historical Analysis and Interpretation to: • 1. Identify issues and problems in the past. • 2. Consider multiple perspectives of various peoples in the past. • 3. Analyze cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation. • AH1.H.2.1 - Analyze key political, economic, and social turning points from colonization • AH1.H.3.1 - Explain how environmental, cultural and economic factors influenced the patterns of migration and settlement within the U.S. before the Civil War

  3. Unit 1 – Pre-Columbian America – Building a Colony • Essential Questions: • How did civilizations develop in the United States? • How did the geography and climate of the United States affect Native Americans? • How did early people in the Americas adapt to their environment? • What were the ways in which the peoples of the New and Old Worlds affected each other when their societies came in contact? • What were the changes taking place in western Europe that resulted in widespread interest in colonization? • What were the connections that existed between what happened in the Americas and what was happening in the rest of the world?

  4. The European World

  5. World History Review • Early Middle Ages – 500-1000 • Isolation of Europe • Feudalism • Powerful Roman Catholic Church

  6. Quick Review of European History • Feudal System/Hierarchy (manor system) • Serfs- tied to land • Priests- Importance of church- Pope, Vernacular Bible, cathedrals… • Royalty- Kings, queens, knights…POWER!!

  7. Quick Review of European History • Loss of power of the King- • King John and the Magna Carta- • Emergence of the Rights of Nobles and common people

  8. Towards the Modern World 2 • Late Middle Ages – 1000-1300 • Growth of cities- Urbanization • London, Paris, Rome • Rise of monarchs • Divine right of kings • Growth of Education and Universities • Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge

  9. Quick Review of European History • Growth of middle class- • Development of business, merchants, guilds • Why important? • The Black Plague • What changes did it bring??

  10. Towards the Modern World • Late Middle Ages – 1000-1300 • Crusades • Christian knights and soldiers headed to the ‘Holy Lands’ to dispel the “Infidels” • Richard the Lion-Hearted left England as a warrior king • Robin Hood’s King • Trade w/Asia and the Muslim world • Spices via South Seas islands • Silk road via today’s Afghanistan • Coffee via today’s Turkey

  11. The Renaissance Mid-14th Century-15th Century • A time of new thinking and expanding knowledge • Literally means “rebirth” • Began in Italy and spread throughout Europe • Science, humanism, art, literature.. • Guttenberg and his printing press became a major part of this new spreading of knowledge • Movable type and mass production of books • “You mean I can read my own Bible???”

  12. The Reformation • Martin Luther • His ideas shook the Church’s foundation in 1517 • Nailed 95 Theses on the door in Wittenberg • Protestantism born • Church of England, Methodism, Baptists, Lutheranism… • Why important to colonial Americans??

  13. Towards a Modern European • Age of Exploration • Seafaring and Military technology improve • Competition among European nations • Portugal • First European nation to be a seagoing power • Prince Henry the Navigator • Spain- • Became the most powerful nation • 3 G’s- God, Gold, Glory • Columbus, Isabella, and Ferdinand • Exploration of the New World

  14. Line of Demarcation • Line drawn by Pope Alexander VI in 1493-1494 to assign colonial spheres of interest in the Americas to Portugal and Spain.

  15. Who Got What?? • Portugal was assigned • Brazil • the west and east coasts of Africa • the southern and eastern shores of Asia • and the East Indies • Spain was assigned • the Americas • and lands encountered by or to be encountered by Columbus • the Philippines

  16. The Pre-Columbian Native American World

  17. How did the Native Americans Get Here? 1. 2. 3. 4.

  18. How did the Native Americans Get Here? • Land Bridge Beringia 2. Land/sea route from East 3.Land/sea route from West 4. Sea route from South Seas

  19. The Land Bridge

  20. Where did thesetribes settle? • Northwest coast • California coast • Mid Continental plateaus • The Great Basin • Southwest • The Great Plains • The Northeast • The Southeast

  21. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Far Northern tribes • Lived in the NW coastal edges of North America • Today area of Alaska and NW Canada • Lived a nomadic lifestyle • Dependent upon fish for survival • Followed game from place to place • Today’s descendants are the Inuit and Aleut of the far north

  22. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Northwestern tribes • Settled along the shores, rivers, and creeks of southeastern Alaska to northern California. • Developed a maritime culture; were expert canoe builders. • Developed a high culture without the benefit of agriculture or pottery • Tribes lived in large, complex communities, constructed multifamily cedar plank houses. • Were highly skilled in crafts and woodworking. • Placed an inordinate value on accumulated wealth and property. • Held lavish feasts called potlatchesto display their wealth and social status.

  23. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • California tribes- • Lived in what today is the state of California • Varying cultures which were adapted for deserts and/or coast • One tribe was called the Costanoans (which means "coast people" in Spanish) • Constructed permanent dwellings made up of a variety of materials including redwood, pinecones, bark, and leaves as well as earthen pits • Foods varied according to climate and area of settlement

  24. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Plateau/Mid American Tribes • Lived in Ohio valley, central Mississippi, and Illinois River Valleys. • Were both hunter-gatherers and farmers. • Villages were built along rivers, characterized by large conical or dome-shaped burial moundsand elaborate earthen walls enclosing large oval or rectangular areas. • Were highly skilled craftsmen in pottery, stone, sculpture, and metalworking, especially copper • Engaged in widespread trade all over northern America extending west to the Rocky Mountains

  25. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Great Basin Tribes • Due to the limited vegetation in the Great Basin, Indians in this area were primarily hunter-gatherers. • The main food source for early native peoples was pine nuts, acorns, wild beans, and other local plants • Meat for the natives in this area was supplied through fishing • Because of the limited number and variety of trees available, wood for fires, as well as tool making, was also a valuable commodity. • In the winter, they lived in wickiups -small cone-shaped structures constructed of a pole framework covered with sod, bark, grass, animal skins, brush or reeds.  • During the summer months, a lean-to or windbreak made of brush provided comfortable living quarters.

  26. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Southwest Tribes- • Settled in present-day Arizona. • Were desert farmers. • Cultivated corn. • Were first to grow cotton in the Southwest. • Wove cotton fabrics. • Built pit houses and later multi-storied buildings (pueblos). • Constructed vast network of irrigation systems. • Major canals were over 30 miles long. • Built ball courts and truncated pyramids similar to those found in Middle America. • First in world known to master the art of etching • Etched shells with fermented Saguaro cactus juice).

  27. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Plains Indians • Primarily associated with the Great Plains area. • Were bison/American buffalohunters. • Developed a delicately flaked spear point • Adopted mass-hunting technique (jump-kill) to drive animal herds off a cliff. • First to use grinding stones to grind seeds and meat.

  28. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Northeast Tribes- • Also known as “Woodlands tribes” by some historians • Area was home to vast forests and lakes and many types of food • Iroquois were largest and most important tribe • Men were hunters and warriors, providers and protectors of the community. • Women owned the houses, gathered wild foods, cooked, made baskets and clothing, and cared for the children • Lacrosse began as the northeastern Indians' ball-and-stick game • Prepared men for war and reinforced religious beliefs

  29. Pre-ColumbianNative American Tribes • Southeastern Tribes- • Extended from Mississippi Valley into Alabama, Georgia (Etowah Mounds), and Florida. • They were also known as Temple Mound Builders. • Constructed large flat-topped earthen mounds on which were built wooden temples and meeting houses and residences of chiefs and priests • Built huge cedar pole circles (woodhenges) for astronomical observations. • Were highly skilled hunters with bow and arrow. • Practiced large-scale farming of corn, beans, and squash.

  30. Similarities Between Tribes • Kinship and clans • Often matriarchal connections • “Earth” religions • Oral history traditions • Barter as form of payment • No money • Beliefs of land ownership • No one owned the land • Led to dispute with Europeans and later Americans

  31. Differences Between Tribes • Way of life adapted to environment • Some farmed, some hunted and fished, some were nomads • Many different culture groups existed

  32. American Indians Map

  33. Lesson 2

  34. The World of the West Africans

  35. Africa- A diverse land • West African life- three types of vegetation made tribes’ culture different • the Savanna, rich with resources • West coast- rainforest • Desert- nomad

  36. Africa- A diverse land 2 • A rich diversity of people and culture developed • Trade along coasts began with Portuguese traders • Salt, gold, later slaves

  37. Key Information • Oral traditions developed • Very little written records exist • Storytellers were important to tribes • Remembered their history • Importance of elders and women

  38. Key Differences with Europeans • Many Religions in Africa unlike in Europe • Catholic Church was dominant in Europe • Abundance of land in Africa, but many rivers were impossible to navigate • Land is scarce in Europe and generally owned by the wealthy and powerful • Intra-African Slavery- • If captured within Africa slave became a part of new culture • Generally integration by slaves was not possible in Europe

  39. Birth of the Atlantic World

  40. Birth of the Atlantic WorldColumbus’ voyage led to the reshaping of every culture Causes of Voyage • Quest for knowledge of the world • Wish to bring Christianity to other lands and people • Desire for new trade route to the East • Rivalry with Portugal • Desire for Wealth Effects of Voyage • Columbian Exchange • Conquest of Native Americans • Search for Northwest Passage • Establishing European Empires in the Americas • Death of Native Americans b/c of disease • Enslavement of Africans • Blending of cultures in America

  41. Effect on Native Americans • At first, the Indians were helpful • Pocahontas • Squanto • Disease • Smallpox, measles, chicken pox, influenza, tuberculosis, typhus • Conflict • Powhatan fight • King Philip’s War

  42. "With my own eyes I saw Spaniards cut off the nose, hands and ears of Indians, male and female, without provocation, merely because it pleased them to do it. ... Likewise, I saw how they summoned the caciques and the chief rulers to come, assuring them safety, and when they peacefully came, they were taken captive and burned."

  43. "[The Spaniards] took babies from their mothers' breasts, grabbing them by the feet and smashing their heads againt rocks. ...They built a long gibbet, low enough for the toes to touch the ground and prevent strangling, and hanged thirteen [natives] at a time in honor of Christ Our Saviour and the twelve Apostles. ...Then, straw was wrapped around their torn bodies and they were burned alive."

  44. Reasons for Building Overseas Colonies • Add wealth and power to home country • Source of valuable raw materials • Gold and silver • New markets for goods manufactured in home country • Base for Privateers (Sea Dogs) • European overpopulation

  45. English Colonial Regions

  46. The EndStudy and Read Your Textbook!