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A New Nation. Changes after the Revolution. What you need to know. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the challenges faced by the new nation by identifying the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of Confederation.

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A New Nation

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a new nation

A New Nation

Changes after the Revolution

what you need to know
What you need to know
  • The student will demonstrate knowledge of the challenges faced by the new nation by
    • identifying the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of Confederation.
    • identifying the basic principles of the new government established by the Constitution of the United States of America and the Bill of Rights.
    • identifying the conflicts that resulted in the emergence of two political parties.
    • describing the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the United States.
articles of the confederation
Articles of the Confederation
  • The Articles of Confederation was a constitution written during the American Revolution to establish the powers of the new national government.
articles of the confederation4
Articles of the Confederation
  • Articles of Confederation
    • Provided for a weak national government
    • Gave Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states
    • Provided for no common currency
    • Gave each state one vote regardless of size
    • Provided for no executive or judicial branch
the united states constitution
The United States Constitution
  • The Constitution of the United States of America established a federal system of government based on power shared between the national and state governments.
the united states constitution6
The United States Constitution
  • Set up a Federal System of Government
    • Federal system of government:A system that divides governmental powers between national government and the governments of the states
the united states constitution7
The United States Constitution
  • Established the Basic Principles of our Government.
    • Basic principles of government
      • Separation of powers
        • The structure of the new national government was based on James Madison’s “Virginia Plan,” which called for three separate branches of government:
        • Legislative Branch (Congress) makes the laws. Congress is a two-house legislature in which all states are represented equally in the Senate (two Senators per state) and people are represented in the House of Representatives (number of a state’s representatives is based on state’s population).
        • Judicial Branch (Supreme Court) determines if laws made by Congress are constitutional.
        • Executive Branch (President) carries out the laws.
      • Checks and balances
        • Each branch can check the power of the other.
        • These checks keep any one branch from gaining too much power.
bill of rights
Bill of Rights
  • Bill of Rights
    • James Madison was the author of the Bill of Rights.
    • The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America provide a written guarantee of individual rights (e.g., freedom of speech, freedom of religion).
bill of rights9
Bill of Rights
  • Amendment I. - Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
  • Amendment II. - A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
  • Amendment III. - No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
bill of rights10
Bill of Rights
  • Amendment IV - The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
  • Amendment V - No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
bill of rights11
Bill of Rights
  • Amendment VI - In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
  • Amendment VII - In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
bill of rights12
Bill of Rights
  • Amendment VIII - Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  • Amendment IX - The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
  • Amendment X - The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
two parties emerge
Two Parties Emerge
  • Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had opposing views on the role of the national government. That opposition resulted in the creation of two political parties.
  • The debate over the role of the national government has continued throughout United States history.
what should the government do
What should the Government do?
  • Major party differences
    • Alexander Hamilton
      • Leader of Federalists
      • Favored strong national government
      • Favored limits on states’ powers
      • Favored development of industry on a national scale
      • Favored a national bank
    • Thomas Jefferson
      • Leader of the Democratic Republicans
      • Favored a weak national government
      • Supported states’ powers
      • Favored small business and farmers
      • Opposed a national bank
america s first leaders
America’s first leaders
  • Congress and the first five presidents made decisions establishing a strong government that helped the nation grow in size and power.
  • All of the first five presidents were Virginians except John Adams.
george washington
George Washington
  • Federal court system was established.
  • Political parties grew out of the disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proper role of the national government.
  • The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution of the United States of America.
  • Plans were initiated for development of the national capital in Washington, D.C. Benjamin Banneker, an African American astronomer and surveyor, helped complete the design for the city.
john adams
John Adams
  • A two-party system emerged during his administration.
thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • He bought Louisiana from France (Louisiana Purchase).
  • Lewis and Clark explored this new land west of the Mississippi River.
james madison
James Madison
  • The War of l812 caused European nations to gain respect for the United States.
james monroe
James Monroe
  • He introduced the Monroe Doctrine warning European nations not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • What were the basic weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
  • What were the basic principles of governments stated in the Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights?
  • What were the major differences between Hamilton and Jefferson?
  • What were the major national issues and events faced by the first five presidents?