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Autism Spectrum Disorders Development of Young Children with Disabilities #872.514 (61) Carol Ann Heath. Autism & PDD. Neurological disorder affecting a child’s abilities: Atypical communication Social reciprocity Repetitive behaviors Autism spectrum: pervasive developmental disorders.

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Autism pdd

AutismSpectrum DisordersDevelopment of Young Children with Disabilities#872.514 (61)Carol Ann Heath


Autism pdd
Autism & PDD

  • Neurological disorder affecting a child’s abilities:

    • Atypical communication

    • Social reciprocity

    • Repetitive behaviors

  • Autism spectrum: pervasive developmental disorders


Dsm iv tr diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4 th ed text revision
DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4thed, Text Revision

Symptoms pervade all areas of development includes:

  • Autistic disorder

  • Asperger’s disorder

  • Rett’s disorder

  • Childhood disintegrative disorder

  • PDD-NOS


Autism
Autism

  • 1943 - Leo Kanner: first described the syndrome of autism; derived from the Greek word for self-absorption; organic condition;

  • 1944- Hans Asperger: diffculties with language and socialization.

  • 1950’s Bettleheim: poor parenting

  • 1970’s – 80’s Lovaas: ABA


Characteristics
Characteristics

  • Limited verbal language

  • Atypical social relationships; lack of social interaction and reciprocity

  • Obsessions

  • Repetitive behaviors

  • Ritualized behaviors

  • Fascination with objects and restricted patterns


Prevalence
Prevalence

  • Autism & PDD = 1/150

  • Affects boys 4x more often than girls

  • Cause unknown: without a single etiology

    • Researchers finding brain differences

    • Researchers finding biochemical differences

    • Not caused by psychological factors

    • Genetic predisposition with environmental interaction


Development
Development

  • Often typical regulation - yrs 1 & 2

  • >2, tendency toward hyper

    • Reactivity

    • Sensitivity

  • Difficult to calm/console

  • Generally, good gross + fine motor skills


Development continued
Development continued ...

  • Generally, good

    • Perceptual abilities

      • Sensory capacities

  • Learn about object use more slowly

  • Use objects in atypical ways

  • Pretend play usually limited

  • Emotional flatness

  • Language acquisition severely delayed


Diagnosis
Diagnosis

  • Symptoms present by 3 years of age

  • Child displays > 6 of 12 symptoms re:

    • Social interaction

    • Communication

    • Behavior


Associated conditions
Associated Conditions

  • Intellectual disability

  • Learning disabilities

  • Epilepsy

  • Tics

  • Sleep disorders

  • Gastrointestinal symptoms

  • Psychiatric conditions


Genetic disorders
Genetic Disorders

  • Tuberous sclerosis

  • Fragilel X

  • Chromosome 15

  • Down Syndrome

  • CHARGE

  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome


Interventions
Interventions

  • 1 to 1 behavior therapy (Lovaas)

  • Behavior therapy

  • Speech/language therapy

  • Medication

  • Psychotherapy


Interventions continued
Interventionscontinued ...

  • SI

  • Special education

  • Nutritional treatments

  • Secretin

  • Family support


Autism pdd
PDD

  • Child with behaviors similar to autism

  • Less severe

  • Do not meet criteria for autism


References
References

  • Hyman, S. L. & Towbin, K. E. Autism spectrum disorders. pp. 325-343. In Batshaw, M. L., Pellegrino, L., & Roizen, N. J. (2007). Children with Disabilities (6th Ed.) Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

  • http://www.case.edu/affil/sce/Texts_2005/Autism%20and%20Representation%20Silverman.htm