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By Gary Soto

By Gary Soto

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  1. "Off and Running" By Gary Soto Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  2. Summary Slide • Text Structure: Compare and Contrast • Use Context to Confirm Meaning • Purpose • Compare and Contrast • Characterization • Analogies • About the Author • Websites Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  3. Text Structure: Compare and Contrast Authors use text structure to organize information. One type of text structure is to compare and contrast. Authors can compare and contrast story characters, settings, objects, ideas, and events by identifying how they are alike and different. When you read a piece of writing that is organized in this way, look for signal words such as also, too, and similarly for comparisons and but, yet, and although for contrasts. Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  4. Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  5. Use Context to Confirm Meaning Good readers use strategies, such as using context to confirm meaning, to make sure they understand the meaning of unfamiliar words. Good readers are active readers, and they pay attention to the context of the text surrounding an unfamiliar word. Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  6. Purpose Read “Off and Running” – pages 492 – 507. As you read complete a Venn diagram to compare and contrast Miata’s and Rudy’s campaign. Both Fifth grader Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  7. Compare and Contrast • Miata • Wants to clean up school and plant flowers • Interviews a former female Mexican mayor for advice and ideas • Promises improvements to school if elected Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  8. Compare and Contrast • p. 495: Compare and contrast Miata’s mood with her father’s mood. • p. 498: Compare and contrast how Miata felt when she first heard about Dona Carmen with how she feels as she drives over to visit her. • p. 504-505: In what ways are Dona Carmen and Miata similar? How are they different? Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  9. Characterization Writers use a variety of techniques to help readers learn about their characters and make contrasts between and among them. Sometimes writers directly describe characters’ appearances and actions and explain their motives. Other times writers give information through the characters’ thoughts, words, and actions. Writers may also reveal their characters through the thoughts, words, and actions of other characters. In the first few pages of the selection, I learn from Miata’s thoughts and words that she is running for fifth-grade class present and is worried about winning. I also learned from her father’s words and appearance that he has a sense of humor and enjoys his family. Miata seems to be a bit nervous while her father seems relaxed. Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  10. Characterization • Characterization will help you learn and form opinions about the characters. • Notice how a character reacts to other characters and how other characters react to him or her. • Look for information the author provides directly about the characters. • Contrast the actions, motives, and appearances of characters to better understand them and how they relate to one another. Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  11. Read the passage on Transparency 194 and then complete the chart. ran against husband because children of town would need to advance She cares for other people and is concerned about the future. Miata is also concerned about other people and their future. is excited by Dona Carmen’s words Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  12. Analogies graffiti • Paper is to writing as wall is to ________. • Leave is to depart as approve is to _____. • State is to governor as town is to ______. • Nerve is to nervous as fame is to ______. • Boring is to interesting as complicated is to _________. endorse mayor famous simple Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  13. About the Author • Born Fresno, CA in 1952 • Married with a daughter • Was a poor student in high school, but loved to read • “Reading builds a life inside the mind.” • Reading “doesn’t make me sweat.” • Why I read? “The pleasure of a story, and the intimacy of getting to know the characters.” • Harcourt - Gary Soto • Official Gary Soto Website Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  14. Websites • Reading Skills Rocket: Text Structure: Compare and Contrast • Test Tutor: Text Structure: Compare and Contrast • Test Tutor: Characterization • Grammar Practice Park: Action Verb-Tree House Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”

  15. Credits • Harcourt Trophies – Distant Voyages, Chicago: Harcourt, 2003. • MacMillan Connections – Landscapes, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987. Theme 5: School Rules “Off and Running”