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Product and Service Design

Product and Service Design

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Product and Service Design

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  1. Product and Service Design Chapter 4

  2. Product or Service Design Activities • Translate customer wants and needs into product and service requirements • Refine existing products and services • Develop new products and services • Formulate quality goals • Formulate cost targets • Construct and test prototypes • Document specifications

  3. Product and Service Design • Major factors in design strategy • Cost • Quality • Time-to-market • Customer satisfaction • Competitive advantage Product and service design – or redesign – should be closely tied to an organization’s strategy

  4. Reasons for Product or Service Design • Economic • Social and demographic • Political, liability, or legal • Competitive • Cost or availability • Technological

  5. Objectives of Product and Service Design • Main focus • Customer satisfaction • Understand what the customer wants • Secondary focus • Function of product/service • Cost/profit • Quality • Appearance • Ease of production/assembly • Ease of maintenance/service

  6. Designing For Operations • Taking into account the capabilities of the organization in designing goods and services. • Failure to take this into account can: • Reduce productivity • Reduce quality • Increase costs

  7. Legal, Ethical, and Environmental Issues • Legal • FDA, OSHA, IRS • Product liability • Uniform commercial code • Ethical • Releasing products with defects • Environmental • EPA

  8. Regulations & Legal Considerations • Product Liability - A manufacturer is liable for any injuries or damages caused by a faulty product. • Uniform Commercial Code - Products carry an implication of merchantability and fitness.

  9. Designers Adhere to Guidelines • Produce designs that are consistent with the goals of the company • Give customers the value they expect • Make health and safety a primary concern • Consider potential harm to the environment

  10. Other Issues in Product and Service Design • Product/service life cycles • How much standardization • Mass customization • Product/service reliability • Robust design • Degree of newness • Cultural differences

  11. Life Cycles of Products or Services Saturation Maturity Decline Demand Growth Introduction Time

  12. Standardization • Standardization • Extent to which there is an absence of variety in a product, service or process • Standardized products are immediately available to customers

  13. Advantages of Standardization • Fewer parts to deal with in inventory & manufacturing • Design costs are generally lower • Reduced training costs and time • More routine purchasing, handling, and inspection procedures • Quality is more consistent

  14. Advantages of Standardization (Cont’d) • Orders fillable from inventory • Opportunities for long production runs and automation • Need for fewer parts justifies increased expenditures on perfecting designs and improving quality control procedures.

  15. Disadvantages of Standardization • Designs may be frozen with too many imperfections remaining. • High cost of design changes increases resistance to improvements. • Decreased variety results in less consumer appeal.

  16. Mass Customization • Mass customization: • A strategy of producing standardized goods or services, but incorporating some degree degree of customization • Delayed differentiation • Modular design

  17. Delayed Differentiation • Delayed differentiation is a postponement tactic • Producing but not quite completing a product or service until customer preferences or specifications are known

  18. Modular Design Modular design is a form of standardization in which component parts are subdivided into modules that are easily replaced or interchanged. It allows: • easier diagnosis and remedy of failures • easier repair and replacement • simplification of manufacturing and assembly

  19. Reliability • Reliability: The ability of a product, part, or system to perform its intended function under a prescribed set of conditions • Failure: Situation in which a product, part, or system does not perform as intended • Normal operating conditions: The set of conditions under which an item’s reliability is specified

  20. Improving Reliability • Component design • Production/assembly techniques • Testing • Redundancy/backup • Preventive maintenance procedures • User education • System design

  21. Product Design • Robust Design • Concurrent Engineering • Computer-Aided Design • Modular Design

  22. Robust Design Robust Design: Design that results in products or services that can function over a broad range of conditions

  23. Taguchi Approach Robust Design • Design a robust product • Insensitive to environmental factors either in manufacturing or in use. • Central feature is Parameter Design. • Determines: • factors that are controllable and those not controllable • their optimal levels relative to major product advances

  24. Degree of Newness • Modification of an existing product/service • Expansion of an existing product/service • Clone of a competitor’s product/service • New product/service

  25. Cultural Differences • Multinational companies must take into account cultural differences related to the product design. • Notable failures: • Chevy Nova in Mexico • Ikea beds in U.S.

  26. Concurrent Engineering Concurrent engineeringis the bringing together of engineering design and manufacturing personnel early in the design phase.

  27. Computer-Aided Design • Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is product design using computer graphics. • increases productivity of designers, 3 to 10 times • creates a database for manufacturing information on product specifications • provides possibility of engineering and cost analysis on proposed designs

  28. Global Product Design • Virtual teams • Uses combined efforts of a team of designers working in different countries • Provides a range of comparative advantages over traditional teams such as: • Engaging the best human resources around the world • Possibly operating on a 24-hr basis • Global customer needs assessment • Global design can increase marketability

  29. Idea Generation Ideas Supply chain based Competitor based Research based

  30. Reverse Engineering Reverse engineering is the dismantling and inspecting of a competitor’s product to discover product improvements.

  31. Research & Development (R&D) • Organized efforts to increase scientific knowledge or product innovation & may involve: • Basic Research advances knowledge about a subject without near-term expectations of commercial applications. • Applied Research achieves commercial applications. • Development converts results of applied research into commercial applications.

  32. Manufacturability • Manufacturability is the ease of fabrication and/or assembly which is important for: • Cost • Productivity • Quality

  33. Designing for Manufacturing Beyond the overall objective to achieve customer satisfaction while making a reasonable profit is: Design for Manufacturing(DFM) The designers’ consideration of the organization’s manufacturing capabilities when designing a product. The more general term design for operationsencompasses services as well as manufacturing

  34. Product design • Design for manufacturing (DFM) • Design for assembly (DFA) • Design for recycling (DFR) • Remanufacturing • Design for disassembly (DFD) • Robust design

  35. Recycling: recovering materials for future use Recycling reasons Cost savings Environment concerns Environment regulations Recycling

  36. This is the end of the presentation forChapter 4 on Product and Service Design