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Project Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Project Management. EMBA Strategy Implementation. Overview. Morning Introduction to project management Work Breakdown Structure Building the Project Plan Implementing the Project Plan Exercise. What is a project?.

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Project management

Project Management


Strategy Implementation


  • Morning

    • Introduction to project management

    • Work Breakdown Structure

    • Building the Project Plan

    • Implementing the Project Plan

    • Exercise

What is a project
What is a project?

  • A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique result

    • Projects have a beginning and end

    • A project has specific deliverables

    • Teams are usually disbanded at the end

    • Operations, in contrast, are repetitive and on-going

  • Projects are an increasingly important means of executing strategy

    • So-called “strategic initiatives”

    • Project goals can be progressively elaborated over time

What is pm
What is PM?

  • Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to meet project requirements”.

  • Now an IEEE Standard (IEEE1490)

    • Project Management Institute

      • Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

  • PM is seen in a broad context

    • Management of the team, risks, quality & external stakeholders as well as cost and time

Why adopt pm
Why adopt PM?

  • Most projects are over time and over budget (often significantly)

    • On average only 25% of projects meet all of their goals, around 25% fail completely

    • According to the CHAOS report the average project in 2001 was:

      • 163% over time

      • 145% over budget


  • PM can:

    • Justify work and changes

    • Improve tracking of critical variables

    • Identify tasks at differing levels of complexity

    • Decrease project costs

    • Let everyone know how they fit in

    • Improve client reporting

    • Decrease development time/costs and increase productivity and reusability“If you fail to plan then plan to fail”

Critical variables
Critical Variables





Stages of pm
Stages of PM

  • Initiating

  • Planning

  • Executing

  • Controlling

  • Closing

Initiating scope and charter
Initiating: Scope and Charter

  • Project scope management

    • Defining and controlling what is, or is not, included in the project deliverables

  • Project charter

    • A written statement of project scope that is formally agreed with stakeholders and shared with the team

Project charter
Project Charter

  • Problem/opportunity

  • Project name, sponsor, manager

  • Singular Project Goal

  • Objectives that are Specific, Measurable, Assignable, Realistic, Time based (SMART)

    • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

  • Success criteria

  • Assumptions, risks, obstacles

Issues in scope mgt
Issues in Scope Mgt

  • Scope Verification

    • A process should be defined for how the stakeholder will formally accept that deliverables have been achieved

    • Can verify at various stages or phases

    • Verification may be conditional

  • Scope Change

    • A process should also be defined for how scope can be adjusted and the resulting impacts on cost, time, and risk quantified.

Work breakdown structure
Work Breakdown Structure

  • A WBS is a categorization and decomposition of project deliverables

  • Work packages are the lowest level of the structure

    • They are the smallest deliverables

      • 8-80 hours of work (1 day-2 weeks per person/team)

    • Can be further decomposed into activities or tasks

  • The WBS is the input to all other project plans

    • Work that is not in the WBS is not in the project !

Wbs process
WBS Process

  • Ideally a team-based activity (offline with whiteboard)

    • Break the project into phases

      • By lifecycle, milestones, or obligations

    • Decompose the phases into discrete deliverables

    • Decompose the deliverables into work packages using the 8-80 rule

      • Must be able to assign time and resources

      • Create WBS diagram

Wbs process ctd
WBS Process ctd.

  • Next steps

    • Include milestones to mark end of each phase

    • Convert WBS to OpenProj to create timeline (see Donaldson example)

    • Present to project sponsor and key project stakeholders

      • Get formal approval

Geoff choo on wbs
Geoff Choo on WBS

  • Begins with a lifecycle of major phases

  • I work the WBS in iterative cycles

    • Start with high level activities

    • Add sub-activities (note that activities are not really part of WBS)

    • Decompose as deeply as you need

      • Down to one individual working 1-10 days

      • The lowest level should have one individual

      • A list of assignments and accountabilities

      • Let the team fill in low-level activities

  • Length of time predicted from personal experience, historical data and team


  • In your teams, create a WBS for the EMBA trip next year

    • Use OpenProjto determine how early the planning needs to start if the trip must start no later than December 4, 2011

  • OpenProj Skills

    • Enter phases, tasks, and durations

    • Link phases (create dependencies)

    • Set milestones

    • Determine start date

Building the project plan
Building the Project Plan

  • By now, we have the project charter, scope, and WBS

  • We need to add:

    • Schedule and cost estimates

    • Performance measurement baselines

    • Milestones and target dates

    • Required staff

  • Extras

    • Risk, quality, staffing, communications

Note on activities
Note on Activities

  • Technically, the WBS contains only deliverables not activities

  • The work packages need to be decomposed into activities (even sub-activities)

  • Choo’s advice is useful – 1 person for 1 to 10 days

Activity sequencing 1
Activity Sequencing 1

  • Once the activities have been defined they needto be sequenced

Activity sequencing 2
Activity Sequencing 2

  • Constraints (see advanced tab)

    • Do what? Start/Finish

    • When? No earlier than/ No later than/ On this date / As Soon as Possible /As Late as Possible

    • Lead or Lag time is also possible

    • Double click on a link to set all sequence information

Activity duration
Activity Duration

  • Once sequencing has been done, the duration required for each activity has to be estimated

    • Estimates based on experience/history

    • Time units –m, h, d, w, mo

    • Duration is thetime required to complete an activity or task


  • By default,

    • One day equals 8 hours, one week equals 40 hours, and one month equals 20 working days.

    • 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. is the default work day.

    • Tools: Change Working Calendar

      • Options…sets default working time

      • Ability to change default, add extra time, add non-working time (e.g. holidays)

    • Change Gantt chart/entry table

      • Add columns to WBS

      • Split screen display

Calculating duration
Calculating Duration

  • Duration = Work/Resource Units

    • If a resource’s workday is eight hours and he or she is assigned to work on a task at 100% Units (for eight hours of work), then the Duration is eight hours (one day by default).Now let’s say you change the Units to 50%. Then the Duration becomes 16 hours or two days, because if a person is working half of an eight-hour day on this task, then it will take them 16 hours (two days) to complete eight hours of work.

  • Duration stays fixed for first work assignment

    • Recalculates after subsequent work assignments

Network diagrams
Network Diagrams

  • Working with units of time rather than specific dates allows more flexibility

  • We have used Gantt charts, a project network diagram is an alternative way of representing a project.

    • Establishes the “critical path”

    • Contingency planning

      • Allows the team to “tinker” with alternate dependencies and constraints

Critical path analysis
Critical Path Analysis

  • The critical path is the longest duration from project start to finish

    • If any activity on the critical path is delayed the project is going to be late

  • Slack is the limit an activity not on the critical path can be delayed

    • Free slack – the time a single activity can be delayed without delaying successors

    • Total slack – the time an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project

    • Project slack – the time the project can be delayed before missing the customer deadline

Adjusting the critical path
Adjusting the critical path

  • Fast tracking

    • Parallel rather than sequential (FS to SS)

    • Can add some lag to second task to create a partial overlap

    • Can be risky if first task delayed

  • Crashing

    • More resources – but not all tasks can be shortened with more resources

Management reserve
Management Reserve

  • Always reflect the accurate amount of time it should take to complete a task

    • Don’t inflate time to allow for mistakes, rework, and late activities

    • Parkinson’s law – work will expand to fill the time available

  • A management reserve is an artificial task at the end of a project

    • 10-15% of total time

    • Overruns are applied to the reserve

Assigning resources
Assigning Resources

  • A resource is defined as any people, equipment, or materials

    • View Resource Breakdown Schedule

  • Key variables

    • Type – work (per hour), material (per unit), or cost (per activity)

    • Max Units: 50% or 3 engineers

    • Rates –per time period (m, d, mo, y) or per use

    • Double click for resource information

      • Flexible availability, costs, calendar

      • Accrual methods – start, prorated, end

Interview with niral modi
Interview with NiralModi

  • Insights

    • Includes 12-15% variance for unknowns

    • Assessing time required and assigning resources with no slack (or over-allocation) are the toughest tasks

    • Consult team members so you don’t create a schedule you can’t deliver

      • Don’t be too generous though

    • On going deliverables and communication with client can make a difficult project easier


  • Take your WBS from the first exercise and convert it to a project schedule by adding activities using the 8-80 rule

    • Assign resources

      • Keong, Dean Jarley, Lisa, Travel Agent, Other Internal & External Parties

    • Find the critical path and then try shortening

      • What risks does this entail?

Implementing the project plan
Implementing the Project Plan

  • Team has to be motivated and monitored

    • Project status meetings (usuallyweekly)

      • Reporting – compare to baseline,

      • Generating a sense of responsibility & ownership (peer pressure helps the former)

      • Acknowledgements and thank yous

      • Review of status and risks

      • Remediation (if necessary)


  • Tools to track include:

    • E-mail, spreadsheets, web forms, OpenProj, Projects on Demand (cloud-based)

  • Each report should include costs and % of total work completed

    • If work is getting off schedule

      • Add additional resources

      • Invoke the management reserve (reduce the reserve and add time to late task)

      • Reassign the work unit

Tracking finances
Tracking Finances

Interview with jason duigou
Interview with Jason Duigou

  • Lack of supervision is fatal

  • Coming in on time and budget is bloody difficult

  • Try using dynamic digital dashboards for feedback (especially when team is dispersed)

    • Throttle resources up and down as needed

    • Ongoing reward and recognition

    • Communication and feedback is the key

    • Learn from lessons learned – after action

Group activity

  • In your teams, complete

    • the POM+ Project, or

    • Blue Zuma for more of a challenge

  • If you finish early…

    • help others

    • compare your answers!