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The Decline of the Qing Dynasty 19 th century. Chapter 22.1. Causes of Decline. Internal. External. Land used to grow opium. British Opium Trade. Peasant Unrest, corruption . high population, Food Shortages . The Decline of the Qing Dynasty. The Opium Wars. Tai Ping Rebellion.

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the decline of the qing dynasty

Causes of Decline



Land used to grow opium

British Opium Trade

Peasant Unrest, corruption

high population,

Food Shortages

The Decline of the Qing Dynasty

The Opium Wars

Tai Ping Rebellion

Growing Influence of Imperialists

Opposition of conservatives to One Hundred Days of Rebellion

War with Japan

Boxer Rebellion

the opium trade

British had trading outlet at Guangzhou

    • British had a lopsided trade with China – imported more than exported
    • To offset the imbalance of trade, Great Britain started to trade a highly addictive

drug – Opium.

    • The Chinese government

asked England to quit based

on morale issues –

but Britain refused

The Opium Trade
the opium war

Silver was flowing out of China into England’s hands with the trade of Opium

  • China blockaded the foreign ports
  • The British responded with force starting the Opium War (1839-1842)
  • British warships destroyed Chinese coastal and river forts
  • The Qing Dynasty surrenders
The Opium War
treaty of nanjing

Treaty of Nanjing in 1842

    • Chinese agreed to open five coastal ports to British trade
    • Limit taxes on imported British goods
    • Pay for costs of the war
    • China gives the British the island of Hong Kong
  • Extraterritoriality – in the five ports given over to Great Britain, Europeans were subject to their own laws and not the laws of China.
Treaty of Nanjing
sphere of influence

An area where foreign governments have exclusive trading rights and use of ports but do not have administrative control. By the end of the 19th century, large parts of China were claimed as spheres of influence by European countries, Russia, and Japan. Notably the United States did not claim a sphere of influence in China.

  • See map on page 687
Sphere of Influence
the tai ping rebellion

1850 – 1864

The economic problems within China leads to a Peasant revolt

Hong Xiuquan leads the revolt

Hong believes God gave him the mission to destroy Qing dynasty

Hong captures town Yongan and proclaims a new dynasty

The Tai Ping Rebellion
tai ping reforms

Tai Ping rebellion called for social reforms

    • Giving land to peasants
    • Treating women as equals to men
  • Called for people to give up private possessions
  • Common ownership of land introduced
  • money, food, clothing shared
  • Alcohol and tobacco outlawed
  • Practice of binding women’s feet outlawed
Tai Ping Reforms
tai ping revolt

March 1853 – rebels seize Nanjing

    • Massacres 25,000 men, women and children
  • Revolt lasts for 10 years
  • Over 20 million people die
  • Europeans come to aid of Qing Dynasty
  • 1864 – Chinese forces, with European aid, recapture Nanjing
Tai Ping Revolt
second opium war

China could not deal with Tai Ping internal revolt because they were also dealing with outside forces

  • Treaty of Tianjin – 1858
    • Chinese agree to legalize Opium trade
    • Agree to open new ports to foreign trade
    • Surrender the Kowloon Peninsula to Great Britain
      • China resist parts of treaty
        • British seize Beijing in 1860
Second Opium War
qing dynasty declines

1870 – China depends on regional warlords to help them restore order

  • Warlords collect tax money from locals for their own use
  • Self-strengthening – China should adopt Western technology while keeping its Confucian values and institutions.
    • Factories were built to produce modern weapons
    • Ships built to increase military strength
Qing Dynasty Declines

Chinese government keeps traditional imperial bureaucracy

  • Government tries to modernize China’s military and build up industry
  • Railroads, weapons, factories, shipyards were built while keeping Chinese value system the same
imperialism in china

1880s and 1890s

  • Internal conditions continued to deteriorate in China
  • Russia pressures China to give up territories in Siberia
  • Russia and Great Britain struggle for Tibet
  • European states created spheres of Influence areas (exclusive trading rights)
Imperialism in China
foreign influence war with japan

Warlords trade directly with foreign nations as well as give exclusive railroad and mining privileges

  • Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan all establish spheres of influence
  • 1894: China goes to war with Japan over inroads into Korea.
  • Chinese defeated
    • Japan demands island of Taiwan and Liaodong Peninsula
    • Foreign powers force Japan to give the Peninsula back to China
Foreign Influence, War with Japan
internal crisis

1898 - Emperor GuangXu(GWANG SHYOO)

launches massive reforms

  • “One Hundred Days of Reform”
    • Empire issues edicts calling for major political, administrative and educational reforms
    • Models Western models
  • Many leaders opposed the reforms
  • Empress Dowager Ci Xi (TSUH-SEE) opposes reforms
  • She imprisons the Emperor and ended his reform efforts
Internal Crisis
united states gets involved

1899 - John Hay, secretary of state of U.S. presents a proposal that ensures equal access to the Chinese market for all nations and preserves the unity of the Chinese Empire

  • This was called the Open Door Policy
  • Open Door Policy helped to reduce restrictions on foreign imports imposed by the dominating powers within each sphere of influence.
United States Gets Involved
the boxer rebellion

Boxer – name given to members of a secret organization – Society of Harmonious Fists

  • Boxers upset by foreign influence
  • “Destroy the Foreigner” motto
  • Disliked Christian missionaries, Chinese converts – roamed countryside killing them (1900)
  • Boxers take over Beijing while foreigners flee to compound
The Boxer Rebellion
the boxer rebellion1

Two months later, an allied army consisting of 20,000 British, French, German, Russian, American and Japanese troops seize Beijing.

  • Restores order and demands more concessions from Chinese government.
  • Chinese government has to pay indemnity for damages
The Boxer Rebellion