Name the Austrian monk who is known as the Father of Genetics! • Thomas Hunt • Gregor Mendel • Charles Darwin • Watson and Crick
Gregor Mendel Sadly, Gregor Mendel died before other scientists understood the importance of his ground-breaking work!
What is the genetic term for “hybrid?” In other words, having one dominant allele and one recessive allele for a particular trait! • A. Homozygous • Dominant Trait • Heterozygous • Pure
Heterozygous Great Job!!!!! An example would be Nn.
Which pair of gametes could unite to become a normal human male? 23 + X 22 + X 22 + Y 23 + Y 22 + X 22 + Y A C B 23 + X D Remember the “X” and “Y” are chromosomes! 23 + Y
The “orange” egg with the “red” sperm could produce a normal human male 22 + Y 22 + X The X represents the female sex chromosome and the Y represents the male sex chromosome. In humans, males determine the sex of the child. Just click anywhere to see a serious chromosome mistake!
…now if you mix the wrong egg with the wrong sperm... 23 + X 23 + Y
Name the 4 major blood types! • A • B • C • O • AB
A, B, AB and O Each blood type is unique based on proteins found on the red cell or in the plasma.
Chromosomes are located inside what major structure of the cell? • Golgi • Cytoplasm • Nucleus • Plasma Membrane
What type of plant did Gregor Mendel usually work with? • Rose Plants • Snapdragons • No plants: humans • Pea Plants
Pea plants Pea plants were a good choice for Mendel. They were easy to grow and matured quickly. Different plants show sharply contrasting traits. Also, unlike the plants above, pea plants keep there reproductive parts (pistil and stamen) enclosed by their petals, not allowing cross-pollination, unless Mendel did so.
What does the term “filial” (F1 or F2) mean? • Parents • Generation • Family • Probability
A short segment of a chromosome that governs the expression of a trait is called a ______________? ? • Gene • Allele • Hybrid • DNA
gene Typically, there are a few thousand genes on one chromosome. Currently, The Human Genome Project is “mapping out” the location of all of the human genes… over 100,000 of them!
What does “FOIL” stand for? • A.Fun over in la la land • First orbit in layers • Front, outer, inner, last • First, outer, inner, last
FirstOuterInnerLast T t R r The FOIL method is used to determine the possible gametes in a “two-trait” parent!
What specifically is a mutation? • Change in the punnett square • Change in the time (daylight savings) • Teenagers • Change in the DNA code
A change in the DNA code T A A G C
Two heterozygous plants are crossed (Tt x Tt)…what is the probability that the offspring plants will be short? • 50% • 75% • 25% • 0% T = tall t = short
25% short (tt) T t T T T T t t t t T t
A B c D e a b C D e On the chromosomes below, which letter represents alleles in the homozygous dominant condition? A. B. C. D. E.
The letter D shows the homozygous dominant condition (DD) A B c D e a b C D e
What makes one gene different than another? • The sequence of DNA bases • The sequence of RNA bases • The sequence of proteins • The sequence of generations.
The sequence of DNA bases Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Typically, one gene is hundreds of bases long! One gene
What percent of the offspring will be green with a cross of these parental genotypes: Gg x Gg • 50% • 75% • 25% • 0% G = green g = yellow
G g G g 75% are expected to green! Gg x Gg GG Gg G = green g = yellow Gg gg
Match the graph letters with the answer numbers! Let R = round peas Let r = wrinkled peas • 1) RR x Rr • 2) Rr x rr • 3) Rr x Rr
Let R = round peas Let r = wrinkled peas • 1) RR x Rr is represented by Graph A • 2) Rr x rr is represented by Graph C • 3) Rr x Rr is represented by Graph B
A normal quarter is tossed in the air and has landed “heads” 90 times out of 100. What are the odds that “tails” will come up on the next toss? A 50% B 75% C 25% D 0%
50 percent That’s because past results have no bearing on this question. There is one side that is “tails” out of two total sides on the coin…1/2 = 50 percent! Offspring ratios work the same way. They are probable ratios, not guarantees.
How many different genotypes are there for the 4 blood types? • 2 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7
6 genotypes! Some textbooks leave off the O allele because the lower case “i” represents the recessive allele… which can only be O for blood type! IAIA = Type A IAiO = Type A IBIB = Type B IBiO = Type B IAIB = Type AB iOiO = Type O
What are the possible gametes from a parent with the genotype DdPP? Just use the FOIL method I showed you earlier! • DD, Dd, PP, Pp • Dd, PP, Dd, PP • DP, dp, dd, PP • DP, DP, dP, dP
DP and dP DP DP D d P P dP dP
A black mouse is crossed with a white mouse and some of the offspring are gray…this phenomenon is known as ________ ________? • Dominant/ Recessive • Incomplete Dominance • Codominance Problems • Sex Linked
Incomplete dominance With incomplete dominance, the heterozygous condition shows a phenotype that blends both traits. This is not to be confused with “co-dominance,” where both traits are expressed.
For an organism with the genotype Ttrr, what alleles may have been received from one parent? A.Tt B. rr C. tR D. tr E. TR
D. tr Just use the FOIL Method here to figure that one of the gametes produced is tr! Ttrr
A man heterozygous for blood type A marries a woman with blood type AB. The blood type of their offspring could not be type ________? • A C. AB • B D. O
O Type O requires an O allele from each parent! The Type AB parent cannot contribute an O allele.
True – FalseThe possible gametes that could be produced from this adult plant are TR, TT, Tr, tR, tr. Mitosis T t R r Meiosis ?
Four possible gametes…TR, Tr, tR, tr Mitosis T t R r Meiosis The FOIL method helps here! Tr tR tr TR
Let: T= Tall t= short R= Round r= wrinkled What percent of the offspring will be tall with wrinkled peas using the parental genotypes below? TtRr x ttrr • 9:3:3:1 • 25% • 50% • 30%
TR Tr tR tr Here is how you figure it out! 25% will be tall with wrinkled peas! tr TtRr x ttrr TtRr Let: T= Tall, t= short, R= Round, r= wrinkled Ttrr ttRr ttrr
The fact that males get baldness, hemophilia or color-blindness much more often than females illustrates the pattern of inheritance known as “________________” • Dominant/Recessive • Incomplete Dominance • Codominance • Sex Linked
Sex linkage X Y Any recessive gene here will show that trait in a male. Males have the sex chromosomes X and Y. The Y chromosome is smaller and does not carry the second gene for many traits!
How many boxes are necessary in a Punnett square with these parental genotypes…TtRr x TtRr? • 4 • 8 • 16 • 32