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Classification of Agricultural Animals. Organisms. Identified, grouped, and classified More effectively study and communicate about them Plants and animals are classified or grouped together by characteristics they have in common. They may be characterized by. The uses people make of them
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Organisms • Identified, grouped, and classified • More effectively study and communicate about them • Plants and animals are classified or grouped together by characteristics they have in common
They may be characterized by • The uses people make of them • Physical characteristics • Other categories used to put similar animals together
Classification • Several ways of classifying agricultural animals • Agricultural animals have been domesticated for some type of human use • These animals have been developed into breeds having distinctive characteristics and distinctive uses
Scientific Classification • Binomial nomenclature: Giving two names in Latin • System developed by Swedish Botonist named Linnaeus
Binomial Nomenclature • Genus: First name, always capitalized • Species: Second name, always lowercase • Both are underlined!
Latin • Was used because at the time, it was the international language of scholars • Many languages of the world were based on Latin.
Example • Cattle: Bos taurus • Pigs: Sus scrofa • Horses: Equus caballus • Sheep: Ovis aries • Dogs: Canis familiaris
Common Names • Are often confusing • Different organisms can have similar or the same common name • Different parts of the country may have different common names for the same animal.
Scientific Classification • Orderly and systematic approach to identification • Broad groups of animals are classified together in categories of common characteristics
Scientific Classification • Each group is then broken down further into smaller categories • Process is repeated until the groups cannot be categorized into smaller groups.
Seven Levels of Classification • Kingdom- largest • Phyla • Class • Order • Family
Seven Levels of Classification • Genus • Species- smallest
Kingdoms • Animalia: all multicelled animals • Plantae: multicellular plants that produce chlorophyll through photosynthesis
Kingdoms • Monera: bacteria and blue-green algae • Protista: paramecia and amoebae • Fungi: mushrooms and other fungi
Kingdom • The Kingdom animalia includes all animals ranging from a tiny gnat to huge whales. Because of this diversity we have to further subdivide into phyla.
Phyla • The primary divisions of the kingdom Animalia • The kingdom animalia is divided into twenty-seven phyla.
Phyla • The word phyla comes from the Greek word phulon meaning race or kind • Several phyla are divided into subphyla • Most agricultural animals belong to the phylum Chordata
Phyla • Chordata is divided into subphylas • Vertebrata – animals with backbones
Classes • The phyla and subphyla are further divided into classes. • Agricultural animals such as horses, cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs belong to the class Mammalia.
Classes • Amphibia: frogs, toads • Reptilia: turtles, snakes, lizards • Aves: birds • Mammalia: horses, cattle, pigs
Orders • Classes are divided into smaller groups that categorize animals within a class that possess certain characteristics called orders.
Order • The class Mammalia contains eighteen different orders including • Primates – humans • Artiodactyla – cows, goats, sheep, pigs
Artiodactyla • The order Artiodactyla have three suborders. • Suiformes: pigs, hippopotami
Artiodactyla • Tylopoda: camels, llamas • Ruminantia: deer, cattle, sheep
Families • Orders and suborders still have to be broken down smaller. These are called families.
Genus and Species • The final categories of the scientific classification system are genus and species.
Genus and Species • The Genus and Species are also an animal’s scientific name. • These are always Latin or latinized
Classification of Breeds • A breed of animals is defined as a group of animals with a common ancestry and common characteristics that breed true.
Classification of Breeds • Breeding true: means that the offspring will almost always look like the parents
Selective Breeding • Choosing the best and desired animals and using those animals for breeding purposes.
Purebreds • These are animals whose ancestors are of only one breed.
Breed Associations • An organization that promotes a certain breed of animal. They control the registration process of purebred animals of that breed.
Blood Typing • Not only physical characteristics are used in breed identification. • Blood typing is analyzing and animals blood to determine their history.
Crossbreeding • Sometimes species can be successfully crossed to produce new breeds.
Example • One of the first successful breeds: Santa Gertrudis, which a cross between Shorthorn breed of cattle with the Brahman breed of cattle.
Classification According to Use • Meat Animals • Work Animals
Classification of Horses • Cutting horses: used to heard and work cattle • Draft Breeds: used to pull wagons and heavy loads
Classification of Horses • Harness Horses: used for pulling sulkies or light carriages
Dual-Purpose Animals • An animal that is raised for more than one purpose.
Examples • Cows and Calves • Sheep • Camels (in the desert of the Middle East)