King Darrius I • -King Darius initiated the Persian Wars, to expand his empire to Greece. • -He also wanted to punish the Athenians and the Eretrians for their part in the Ionian Revolt. • -He began the First Persian Invasion around 510 BCE • -Darius began planning the Second Invasion, but died and his son Xerxes took over.
There were 4 major battles in this era between the allied Greek city-states and the Persians. • 1)Battle of Marathon • 2)Battle of Thermopylae • 3)Battle of Salamis • 4)Battle of Plataea • Before we continue with the battles, lets explore their weapons and battle techniques. Greeks Persians
Phalanx • A Greek formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; developed by Philip II of Macedon and used by Alexander the Great
Hoplite Soldiers • Hoplite soldiers were Greek citizen-soldiers. • They were responsible for supplying their own weapons. Greek hoplon shield, which the hoplites were named after.
Greek Weapons Ballista Spear Shield Sword and daggers Individual soldier 6
Triremes 170 oarsmen in total Boat with 3 levels of oars
Battle of Marathon (490 BC) Persian Infantry (likely Immortals) Location of The Plains of Marathon Darius I of Persia The Plains of Marathon today
Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC) Xerxes I of Persia Location of Thermopylae Thermopylae Today Hoplites in Phalanx Formation
Leonidas • -Spartan King • -Lead the Spartans in the battle of Thermopylae • -Consulted the Oracle of Delphi • -Died at the battle of Thermopylae • Xerxes • -Persian King, son of Darius I • -Lead the Persians in the battle of Thermopylae • .-Also known as Xerxes The Great • -Against Persian tradition he was • not the eldest son • of Darrius
Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.) Themistocles Location of troops Darius I of Persia
Oracle at Delphi Temple of Delphi, home of the priestess Plythia (the Oracle)
“Salamis will bring death to women’s sons..... But a wooden wall would save the greeks”
Themistocles • -Politician and General. • -Name translates to: "Glory of the Law". • -Fought in the Second Persian Invasion • and the Battle of Salami. • -Accused of treason to the Spartans • -Exiled to Argos and • became a governor of • Magnesia, in Persia
Battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) Greek disk displaying a fight between a Greek hoplite and a Persian warrior Main movement of the Plataea battle when the Greeks became disorganized and the Persians attacked Location of the Plataea Battle
Persian Empire Video • Start at 3:20 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZlqgtdQoHo&app=desktop
The Persian Empire • -The Persian Empire was one of the largest areas of its time, spanning about eight million square kilometres. • -The Persians were one of the first civilizations to use currency as opposed to bartering, and also instituted official languages. • -They also created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, a wonder of the world. • -The Persians were the first to use petroleum oil.
Athens V.S. Sparta Spartan warrior Athenian warrior Most powerful city-states of the Helenian world (Greece)
Geographic Factors Two main geographic factors in development of Grecian city-states. Sea- Easy access to water naturally made all of the city-states excel at seamanship, trading and exploring.
Mountains- The steep landscape made travel by land difficult so communication between the city-states was limited. Because of this they developed independently, creating drastic differences in values and beliefs in each.
Athenian Society Spartan Society • 2 years of military training (for boys) • Parents raised children • Citizenship automatic for boys, none for girls • Literature (reading and writing) was crucial • Some physical education • Art/culture focused • Women have little rights/freedom • Women could not leave home • Girls had less education • 12 years of military training (age 6-18) • Parents did not raise children • Citizenship if you passed physical exam at age 18 for both men and women • Literature (reading and writing) not important to education • Physical education was key • War focused • Women have more rights/freedom • Women could leave home • Girls had same education as boys
Athenian Spartan Society Society • Citizens could vote, had lots of political influence • Military rank determined by social class • Military service was optional • Valued wisdom, culture, honour and chivalry • Democracy • Citizens with certain qualifications could vote, had some political influence • Military rank determined by skill • Military service was mandatory until age of 60 • Valued strength, obedience, endurance and self discipline • Oligarchy (Small amount of people have power)
Nationalism • These differences in values between the Athenians and the Spartans caused a lot of disagreements and they could not agree on a political leader which would have united them. The city- states kept to themselves and did not work together very well. They constantly struggled for power with each other except for when common enemies , such as the Persian Empire, temporarily united them.
Significance of the Greco-Persian Wars • -The buildings after the destruction of the Acropolis are the ruins we see today. • -The threat of a Persian invasion brought unity among the Greeks. • -Democracy as we know it today.
Bibliography • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Battle_of_salamis.png • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Collier-priestess_of_Delphi.jpg • http://www.livius.org/th/themistocles/themistocles.html • http://www.stephenhicks.org/tag/trireme/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trireme • http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~loxias/trireme.htm • http://www.crystalinks.com/greekeducation.html • http://www.studymode.com/essays/The-Differences-Between-Athens-And-Sparta-1002324.html • http://ca.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110629130433AAvHSVR • http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~sparta/topics/articles/enthusiast/panoply.htm • http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Athens-Defeats-Persian-Army-at-the-Battle-of-Marathon.html • http://scottthong.wordpress.com/2007/05/21/the-macedonian-phalanx/ • http://www.strangehistory.net/2011/01/29/human-sacrifice-and-the-athenians/ • http://boivieapedia.pbworks.com/w/page/8080897/Ancient%20Greece • http://www.siue.edu/COSTUMES/images/PLATE3DX.JPG
http://djshistory.blogspot.ca/2007/12/athens-vs-sparta.html http://www.ushistory.org/civ/5a.asp http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/activityandadventure/8311063/Greece-Finding-an-island-paradise-in-the-Cyclades.html http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/people/g/leonidas.htm http://www.roman-glory.com/kozik-gallery http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/free-max-mode-greek-shield/219143 http://www.renderosity.com/mod/bcs/7-ancient-greek-swords/14847 http://www.medievalcollectibles.com/s-6-greek.aspx http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/war/CatapultTypes.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trireme http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~loxias/trireme.htm Page 10 & 11 Prologue to the Present En.Wikipedia.org/wiki/hoplite www.princeton.edu/-achaney/tmve/wikilook/docs/hoplite.html 30