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Persian War

Persian War

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Persian War

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  1. Persian War

  2. King Darrius I • -King Darius initiated the Persian Wars, to expand his empire to Greece. • -He also wanted to punish the Athenians and the Eretrians for their part in the Ionian Revolt. • -He began the First Persian Invasion around 510 BCE • -Darius began planning the Second Invasion, but died and his son Xerxes took over.

  3. There were 4 major battles in this era between the allied Greek city-states and the Persians. • 1)Battle of Marathon • 2)Battle of Thermopylae • 3)Battle of Salamis • 4)Battle of Plataea • Before we continue with the battles, lets explore their weapons and battle techniques. Greeks Persians

  4. Phalanx • A Greek formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; developed by Philip II of Macedon and used by Alexander the Great

  5. Hoplite Soldiers • Hoplite soldiers were Greek citizen-soldiers. • They were responsible for supplying their own weapons. Greek hoplon shield, which the hoplites were named after.

  6. Greek Weapons Ballista Spear Shield Sword and daggers Individual soldier 6

  7. Triremes 170 oarsmen in total Boat with 3 levels of oars

  8. Battle of Marathon (490 BC) Persian Infantry (likely Immortals) Location of The Plains of Marathon Darius I of Persia The Plains of Marathon today

  9. Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC) Xerxes I of Persia Location of Thermopylae Thermopylae Today Hoplites in Phalanx Formation

  10. Leonidas • -Spartan King  • -Lead the Spartans in the battle of Thermopylae  • -Consulted the Oracle of Delphi  • -Died at the battle of Thermopylae • Xerxes • -Persian King, son of Darius I  • -Lead the Persians in the battle of Thermopylae  • .-Also known as Xerxes The Great  • -Against Persian tradition he was • not the eldest son • of Darrius

  11. Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.) Themistocles Location of troops Darius I of Persia

  12. Oracle at Delphi Temple of Delphi, home of the priestess Plythia (the Oracle)

  13. “Salamis will bring death to women’s sons..... But a wooden wall would save the greeks”

  14. Themistocles • -Politician and General.  • -Name translates to: "Glory of the Law".  • -Fought in the Second Persian Invasion • and the Battle of Salami.  • -Accused of treason to the Spartans  • -Exiled to Argos and • became a governor of • Magnesia, in Persia

  15. Battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) Greek disk displaying a fight between a Greek hoplite and a Persian warrior Main movement of the Plataea battle when the Greeks became disorganized and the Persians attacked Location of the Plataea Battle

  16. Golden Age (479-431 Bc)

  17. Persian Empire Video • Start at 3:20

  18. The Persian Empire • -The Persian Empire was one of the largest areas of its time, spanning about eight million square kilometres. • -The Persians were one of the first civilizations to use currency as opposed to bartering, and also instituted official languages. • -They also created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, a wonder of the world. • -The Persians were the first to use petroleum oil.

  19. Athens V.S. Sparta Spartan warrior Athenian warrior Most powerful city-states of the Helenian world (Greece)

  20. Geographic Factors Two main geographic factors in development of Grecian city-states. Sea- Easy access to water naturally made all of the city-states excel at seamanship, trading and exploring.

  21. Mountains- The steep landscape made travel by land difficult so communication between the city-states was limited. Because of this they developed independently, creating drastic differences in values and beliefs in each.

  22. Athenian Society Spartan Society • 2 years of military training (for boys) • Parents raised children • Citizenship automatic for boys, none for girls • Literature (reading and writing) was crucial • Some physical education • Art/culture focused • Women have little rights/freedom • Women could not leave home • Girls had less education • 12 years of military training (age 6-18) • Parents did not raise children • Citizenship if you passed physical exam at age 18 for both men and women • Literature (reading and writing) not important to education • Physical education was key • War focused • Women have more rights/freedom • Women could leave home • Girls had same education as boys

  23. Athenian Spartan Society Society • Citizens could vote, had lots of political influence • Military rank determined by social class • Military service was optional • Valued wisdom, culture, honour and chivalry • Democracy • Citizens with certain qualifications could vote, had some political influence • Military rank determined by skill • Military service was mandatory until age of 60 • Valued strength, obedience, endurance and self discipline • Oligarchy (Small amount of people have power)

  24. Nationalism • These differences in values between the Athenians and the Spartans caused a lot of disagreements and they could not agree on a political leader which would have united them. The city- states kept to themselves and did not work together very well. They constantly struggled for power with each other except for when common enemies , such as the Persian Empire, temporarily united them.

  25. Significance of the Greco-Persian Wars • -The buildings after the destruction of the Acropolis are the ruins we see today. • -The threat of a Persian invasion brought unity among the Greeks. • -Democracy as we know it today.

  26. Jeopardy Time!!

  27. Bibliography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

  28. Page 10 & 11 Prologue to the Present 30