Pregnancy . Emotional Reactions: Positive Emotions- include anticipation and excitement, sense of purpose, accomplishment, growing sense of attachment towards the baby.
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Significantly increased risks of severe postpartum complications (e.g., hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy, cardiac arrest, major infection) relative to planned vaginal deliveries.
Cesarean birth linked to higher rates of severe maternal morbidity, including hemorrhage requiring transfusion, hysterectomy and uterine rupture; intensive care admission; postpartum readmission to hospital; problems with subsequent births (e.g., reduced fertility, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, placenta previa); complications of repeat cesarean birth; and increased cumulative costs.
Stereotype - she is joyously upbeat, eagerly anticipating the blessed event.
Motherhood is portrayed as happy and satisfying and a one's ultimate fulfillment.
The motherhood stereotype also specifies that the mother will need only a few moments of adjustment to the new baby and then she will feel perfectly competent as her ‘natural’ mothering skills take over.
She is completely devoted to her family, she shows no concern for her own personal needs
6- Because mothering is done at home, mothers of newborns have little contact with other adults. Friends and extended family may not be available to provide support. This kind of isolation further encourages the invisibility of women.
8- Women who have been previously employed feel that others judge them negatively as ‘just as housewife’; they are deprived of other sources of identity which were once central to who they were and what gave them a sense of pride and achievement.
9- Because the women’s attention has shifted to the newborn, her romantic partner may feel neglected.
Unknown in countries where women have a lot of social support after giving birth such ad India, China, Mexico and Kenya suggesting that the reasons are at least partly cultural.
Other factors: dissatisfaction with body size and shape, feeling incompetent to care for a newborn, a sense that one’s real self is lost in the role of mother, disappointment with a partner’s lack of support.
Countries in which postnatal depression is rare offer a period of rest and special care for the new mom, practical and emotional support from other women and a positive attention to the mother, not just to the baby.
Studies asking respondents to evaluate the quality of a particular piece of work, such as research article, have frequently found that the same piece of work is evaluated less favorably when it is attributed to a women than when it is attributed to a man.
Their success was also devalued by being explained as luck and competent women are described as unfeminine and less likeable and competent than men.
One consequence of this undervaluing of women’s work is that women receive less credit and pay for their work.
When men and women are in equal jobs, such as corporate management, women are expected to be more caring and supportive than the men.
Because caring is part of the female stereotype, it is often seen as natural rather than a hard earned and valued skill that needs to be evaluated.
Flip side of that is that women are also judged differently socially. If a woman acts moody, one is far more likely to make sexist comments ('oh, that time of month' or 'that phase of life') than for males
The combination of family and employment roles add up to a very heavy workload for most women, and studies show that women complain of exhaustion and stress that results because of conflicting demands.
Children cared for their by their moms did not differ developmentally in any significant way from those cared by other adult caretakers.
Kids in day care do not suffer from disruption of the bond with their moms, they may experience increased intellectual growth and development, especially if they come from low income homes that cannot provide an enriched environment.
Day care also teaches social skills and is interesting stimulation for the kids.