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Nanotechnology: Spatial Computing Using Molecular Electronics. Mihai Budiu joint work with Seth Copen Goldstein Dan Rosewater. Nanotechnology. Computer architecture. Intersection of Three Areas. Reconfigurable computing. Prophecies, A Risky Endeavor.

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Nanotechnology spatial computing using molecular electronics l.jpg

Nanotechnology: Spatial Computing Using Molecular Electronics

Mihai Budiu

joint work with

Seth Copen Goldstein

Dan Rosewater


Intersection of three areas l.jpg

Nanotechnology Electronics

Computer

architecture

Intersection of Three Areas

Reconfigurable

computing


Prophecies a risky endeavor l.jpg
Prophecies, ElectronicsA Risky Endeavor

There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.

--- Ken Olson

I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.

--- T. J. Watson

There is not the slightest indication that nuclear energy will ever be obtainable.

--- Albert Einstein

640K ought to be enough for everybody.

--- Bill Gates

I will propose this semester.

--- Anonymous


Moore s law l.jpg
Moore’s Law Electronics


Moore s second law l.jpg
Moore’s Second Law Electronics

X 1000$

generation

Plant cost

Mask cost


Our proposal l.jpg
Our Proposal Electronics

  • Nanotechnology

  • cheap

  • high-density

  • low-power

  • unreliable

  • Reconfigurable

  • Computing

  • defect tolerant

  • high performance

  • low density

_

+

+

+

_

+

+

_

+

_

  • Computer architecture

  • vast body of knowledge

  • expensive

  • high-power


Paradigm shift l.jpg
Paradigm Shift Electronics

Configuration

Executable

Dense, regular structure

+

Configuration

Complex fixed chip

+

Program


Outline l.jpg
Outline Electronics

  • Introduction

  • Reconfigurable computing

  • Nanotechnology

  • Nano-architecture proposal

  • Preliminary results

  • Conclusions and Future Work


Reconfigurable computing l.jpg
Reconfigurable Computing Electronics

  • Back to ENIAC-style computing

  • Synthesize one machine to solve one problem


Island style rc architecture l.jpg

Interconnection Electronics

network

Universal gates

and/or

storage elements

Programmable Switches

Island-Style RC Architecture


Main rc ingredient ram cell l.jpg
Main RC Ingredient: RAM Cell Electronics

0

0

0

1

a0

data

a0

a1 & a2

a1

a1

Universal gate = RAM

data in

0

control

Switch controlled by a 1-bit RAM cell


Place and route l.jpg
Place and Route Electronics

int reverse(int x)

{

int k,r=0;

for (k=0; k<64; k++)

r |= x&1;

x = x >> 1;

r = r << 1;

}

}

int func(int* a,int *b)

{

int j,sum=0;

for (j=0; *a>0; j++)

sum+=reverse(*b


Kernel speedup using piperench l.jpg

1000 Electronics

189.7

100

63.3

57.1

42.4

29.0

26.0

15.5

12.0

11.3

10

1

FIR

ATR

DCT

Over

IDEA

Cordic

DCT-2D

Nqueens

PopCount

Kernel Speedup Using PipeRench

Times Over 300Mhz UltraSparc-II


Defect tolerance l.jpg
Defect Tolerance Electronics

  • Despite having >70% of the chips defective, Teramac works flawlessly.

  • Compilation has two phases:

  • defect detection through self-testing

  • placement for defect-avoidance


Outline15 l.jpg
Outline Electronics

  • Introduction

  • Reconfigurable computing

  • Nanotechnology

  • Nano-architecture proposal

  • Preliminary results

  • Conclusions and Future work


Nanotechnology l.jpg
Nanotechnology Electronics


Predicted features l.jpg
Predicted Features Electronics

  • Low Power: 1010 gates use less than 2 W

    (compare to 3x107 transistors using 100 W in CMOS)

  • Low cost

    (nanocents/gate)

  • Small size

    (105 factor area gain)

Nano-RAM cell

.

In yellow: a CMOS RAM cell


Nano wires l.jpg
Nano-wires Electronics

  • carbon nanotubues, Si, metal

  • >2nm diameter, up to mm length

  • excellent electrical properties

A carbon nanotube: one molecule


Nano switch l.jpg
Nano-switch Electronics



Self assembly l.jpg
Self-assembly Electronics




Diode resistor logic l.jpg

V Electronics

DD

Output

Input 1

Input 2

Diode-resistor Logic

V

V

V

V

AND

AND

B

B

A

A

A

B

A * B

A ^ B

A * B

Nano-implementation

Electrical equivalent


Nanoscale latches l.jpg
Nanoscale Latches Electronics

  • Provide:

  • signal restoration (amplification)

  • clocking (synchronization)

  • memory

data

out

D

clock


High defect rate l.jpg
High Defect Rate Electronics


Outline27 l.jpg
Outline Electronics

  • Introduction

  • Reconfigurable computing

  • Nanotechnology

  • Nano-architecture proposal

  • Preliminary results

  • Conclusions and future work


The nanoblock 3 in to 3 out logic l.jpg
The nanoBlock (3-in to 3-out Logic) Electronics

CMOS

Inputs

+Vdd

clk

Gnd

Gnd

clk

Outputs


Interconnecting nanoblocks l.jpg
Interconnecting nanoBlocks Electronics

Switch block


Global view l.jpg
Global View Electronics


Many clusters nanofabric l.jpg
Many Clusters = nanoFabric Electronics

Control

cluster

long-lines


Compilation l.jpg
Compilation Electronics

int reverse(int x){ int k,r=0; for (k=0; k<64; k++) r |= x&1; x = x >> 1; r = r << 1; }}

  • Program

  • Split-phase Abstract Machines

  • Configurations placed independently

  • Placement on chip

Computations

& local storage

Unknown latency ops.


Outline33 l.jpg
Outline Electronics

  • Introduction

  • Reconfigurable Hardware

  • Nanotechnology

  • Nano-architecture proposal

  • Preliminary results

  • Conclusions and Future work


A limit study of performance l.jpg

Control-flow transfer Electronics

Basic block

Memory write

Memory read

Memory word

A Limit Study of Performance

A graph of the whole program execution:


Area 10 6 units cm 2 available l.jpg
Area Electronics(106 units/cm2 available)


Typical program graph g721 e l.jpg
Typical Program Graph (g721_e) Electronics

Memory reads

Control flow transfer

100% code cluster

100% memory cluster


Typical program graph g721 e37 l.jpg
Typical Program Graph (g721_e) Electronics

Memory reads

Control flow transfer

code

memcpy

memory


Program graph after inlining memcpy l.jpg
Program Graph After Inlining Electronicsmemcpy

memcpy



How time is spent l.jpg
How Time Is Spent Electronics

No caches: reads expensive

No speculation


Future work l.jpg
Future Work Electronics

  • Better nano-devices

  • More accurate hardware models in simulations

  • Compilation technology


Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions Electronics

  • Electronic nanotechnology promises to transcend the limitations of CMOS

  • Nanofabrics are very well suited to reconfigurable computation

  • 109-gate designs can be managed through hierarchies of abstract machines