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Digital Wires Alfred Hubler, a-hubler@illinois.edu, Physics, UIUC http://server10.how-why.com/blog Analog wires are used to move energy (power lines, power grid) and information (data transmission lines, Internet) in electrical networks.

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  • Digital Wires

  • Alfred Hubler, a-hubler@illinois.edu, Physics, UIUC http://server10.how-why.com/blog

  • Analog wires are used to move energy (power lines, power grid) and information (data transmission lines, Internet) in electrical networks.

  • However, most dynamical systems with more than 7 degrees of freedom are chaotic => the dynamics of large networks of analog wires is unstable => congestions & cascading failures

  • Digital wires: Wires that propagate only patterns of rectangular pulses

  • Specific advantages of digital wires:

  • - Fixed pulse shape (increased reliability & speed);

  • Robust against electric smog (increased reliability & speed);

  • - No cross talk (increased reliability & speed);

  • - No echoes (increased reliability & speed);

  • Adjustable pulse speed (increased adjustability);

  • Encryption (increased security);

  • Digital wire can be general purpose computers (increased adjustability).

  • Neurons are digital wires. Digital wires move information in parallel.

Digital Wire


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Graphical depiction of a “Digital Wire” formed by imposing circular boundary conditions on a CA. A digital wire implemented by a CA has notable advantages over copper wires, such as isolating defects. By choosing the appropriate rule, the effects of a defect such as a short circuit can be isolated to a single cell site, rather than propagating the defect along the entire wire, as copper wires do.

Digital wires


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Digital Wires: hardware implementation as a transistor network

Vin

Vout

Cell 1

Cell 2

Cell n

(a)

(b)

(a) A digital wire constructed of resistors and pnp transistors. (b) Experimental measurement of the input-output response of the pnp-transisator digital wire. The sharp transition at 77% of the total supply voltage results in a noise immunity threshold. In order for noise to affect the outcome of a signal, it must exceed this threshold.


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Digital Wires: network

Hardware implementation as a Boolean network


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Digital wires: a simple model network

Definition: A digitial wire is a long network of cells. Digital pulses travel along the digital wire, according to the following rule:

Ax+1,y = f (Ax,y-1, Ax,y, Ax,y-1)

-i.e. the state of the cell Ax+1,y =0,1, depends only on the “upstream” neighbors.

Discussion: Digital wires can be viewed as hardware implementations of elementary cellular automata (S. Wolfram). Therefore a digital wire can be a general purpose computer.

Digital Wire

Digital wire (Boolean network, xor rule)


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Digital Wire network

Data Program

Direction of

pulse

propagation


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Digital Wire network


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Digital Wire network


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Digital Wire network


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Digital Wire network


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Digital Wire network

  • Discussion, continued …

  • Digital wires on various scales:

  • -nano- level: thin film transistor networks (parallel , reliable input for CPUs, may replace CPU), quantum dot networks, neurons (brain)

  • Atomic level: electron hopping from atom to atom along a path on a macro molecule (hard ware implementations of neural nets)

  • Microscopic level: transistor networks

  • Mesoscopic level: Boolean networks, Field programmable gate arrays (image processing)

  • Macroscopic level: power lines with phase sensitive switches every 10 miles (no cascading power failures), city traffic

  • Data transmission lines versus power lines:

  • There is energy traveling with every pulse. Computation does not necessarily consume much power (conservative computation).

  • Periodic pulses can produce a lot of power.

  • Pulses that carry information look random.

  • H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hübler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent # 5,679,961 (1997)


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Digital Wire network

  • Discussion, continued …

  • Different cellular automata rules:

  • -Rule 110: general purpose computer

  • Rule 204: identity rule

  • Rule 30: random number generator

  • Rule 254: self-repairing pulses

  • Rule 0: trivial

  • Merging data from different digital wires:

Given is the state 000111010.

What is the pulse one time step later for rule 0? 000000000

Wire 1

Wire 2


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  • Summary: Digital Wires network

  • Analog wires are used to move energy (power lines,

  • power grid) and information (data transmission lines,

  • Internet) in electrical networks.

  • -Dynamical systems with more than 7 degrees of freedom are chaotic (Lee Rubel )=> the dynamics of large networks of analog wires are unstable.

  • Digital wires: wires that propagate only patterns of rectangular pulses

  • Specific advantages of digital wires:

  • - Fixed pulse shape (increased reliability)

  • Robust against electric smog (increased reliability)

  • - No cross talk (increased reliability)

  • - No echoes (increased reliability)

  • Adjustable pulse speed (increased adjustability)

  • Encryption (increased security)

  • Digital wire can be general purpose computer s(increased adjustability)

  • Neurons are digital wires.

  • Alfred Hubler, a-hubler@illinois.edu, Physics, UIUC http://server10.how-why.com/blog

Digital Wire