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partnership . excellence . growth . Aquaculture and Development. World Bank Workshop Viet Nam January 2008. aquaculture - the issues. aquaculture, food and livelihoods. increases social and environmental resilience ecologically efficient aquatic herbivores and food webs

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Aquaculture and development l.jpg

partnership . excellence . growth

Aquaculture and Development

World Bank Workshop

Viet Nam

January 2008

Aquaculture food and livelihoods l.jpg
aquaculture, food and livelihoods

  • increases social and environmental resilience

    • ecologically efficient

      • aquatic herbivores and food webs

      • increases ‘crop per drop’

    • relieves pressure on wild fish

    • use economically marginal resources

      • salinized groundwater, borrow pits, irrigation channels

    • helps build resilient livelihoods

      • high value crop

      • mitigate climate change impacts

fish pond


green plants

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aquaculture and development

global fish production

  • one of the most innovative and rapidly growing food sectors

    • technical developments

    • market opportunities

    • investment

  • majority of aquatic foods

  • provides opportunities for millions

    • 12 million Asian fish farmers

      • multiplier effects throughout value chain






million tonnes













source: FAO

Aquaculture and economic growth l.jpg
aquaculture and economic growth

wider economy and other beneficiaries

produce aqua-feeds

transport fry, fish &


access to

affordable fish

operate a hatchery

produce fish

fish trader






feed mill


grow feed

ingredient crops

highly effective means of maximizing

benefits from agriculture for development

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red tide, Inland Sea, Japan

but …

  • some remain poorly informed

    • poor enabling environment

    • lack of investment

  • real concerns

    • can production meet growth in demand?

      • rate of aquaculture growth slowing

    • impacts of expansion, intensification and globalization

      • makes unsustainable demands on the environment

      • perpetuates/aggravates inequity and social exclusion

      • susceptible to climate change, increasing vulnerability

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key investment principles

  • identify target groups and establish objectives at program/project outset and develop context-specific interventions

  • adopt a people centered – sustainable livelihoods - approach

  • stakeholders should adopt/modify technologies that both maximize productivity and minimize environmental demands to user capabilities and needs

  • understand, and secure access to, present and future markets

  • understand the roles of support infrastructure and the importance of mainstreaming aquaculture into watershed planning and engage with private/public sectors and civil society to create an enabling environment

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USAID DSAP, Bangladesh

Development of Sustainable Aquaculture Project 2000-2005

  • farmer, NGO, public sector, researcher partnership

  • clarify objectives

    • improve resilience of small-scale farmers through better technologies

  • design context-specific investments

    • develop sustainable extension support

    • increase stakeholder technical knowledge

    • improve access to input markets

  • Usaid dsap bangladesh11 l.jpg
    USAID DSAP, Bangladesh

    • adopt Sustainable Livelihoods approach that was household-based

      • household capabilities and assets

      • optimize on-farm resource use

      • increase profits and food security

      • empower women

    • tailor technologies

      • Participatory Action Research

      • NGO capacity building (500 staff)

      • learning networks

    Usaid dsap bangladesh12 l.jpg
    USAID DSAP, Bangladesh

    • understand markets

      • strong markets for affordable fish

      • lack of affordable finance, quality seed and feed

    • create enabling environment

      • improved partnering arrangements

      • NGOs facilitated access to finance

      • SME distributed seed and feed production

    Usaid dsap bangladesh outcomes l.jpg
    USAID DSAP, Bangladesh - outcomes

    • beneficiaries

      • 68,400+ farmers

    • food security

      • >8200 t

    • household-level benefits

      • production – 1542 to 3046 kg ha-1

      • aquaculture income - $1130 to $2200 ha-1

      • total farm income - 13% to 17%

      • fish consumption - 46 to 58 g person-1 day-1

      • empowerment of women

    Integrated aquaculture iaa malawi l.jpg

    development of IAA, Malawi, since 1988 (various funding agencies, partners, stakeholders)

    identify target beneficiaries

    low income, smallholder farmers

    HIV-AIDS affected households

    clarify objectives

    improve food security (fish; crop per drop) and resilience of farmers through development and dissemination of technologies

    integrated aquaculture (IAA), Malawi

    Iaa malawi l.jpg

    design context-specific investments agencies, partners, stakeholders)

    increase stakeholder knowledge

    new approaches to extension

    optimise on-farm resource use to maximize profits

    adopt Sustainable Livelihoods approach

    assess farmer capabilities and assets

    improve food security, profitability and nutrition

    empower farmers (farmer groups)

    empower women and children

    HIV-AIDS affected households

    IAA, Malawi

    Iaa malawi17 l.jpg
    IAA, Malawi agencies, partners, stakeholders)

    • tailor technologies

      • Participatory Action Research

        • holistic, whole-farm approach

        • drought-resistant technologies

        • technologies for women and child-headed households

        • intensification of production

    • understand markets

      • present and future

    • create enabling environment

    Iaa malawi outcomes l.jpg
    IAA, Malawi - agencies, partners, stakeholders)outcomes

    • 5000 farmers

    • increase of 22% per annum 1996 – 2001 (40% 2003-2006)

    from Dey et al. (2007)

    • improved recycling, sustainability, resilience

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    Technological Aspects agencies, partners, stakeholders)

    Human Capital

    Social Inst. Environ









    IAA, Malawi – scaling out

    from data mapping

    from Bayesian network modeling

    *KAM Suan Pheng, WorldFish Center, and partners – Universities of Kassel, Hoenheim, Germany; Dept. Fisheries, Malawi

    Bangladesh; Chinese Academy of Fisheries Science

    Slide20 l.jpg

    case study 3 agencies, partners, stakeholders)

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    river catfish, Vietnam agencies, partners, stakeholders)

    cage culture of river catfish, Vietnam

    • identify target beneficiaries

      • cage catfish farming SMEs

    • clarify objectives

      • increase production for export

    • design context-specific interventions

      • increase access to seed and feed

      • control disease

      • value chain development

        • food safety (traceability, certification)

        • niche markets

    River catfish vietnam22 l.jpg
    river catfish, Vietnam agencies, partners, stakeholders)

    • adopt Sustainable Livelihoods approach

      • assess capabilities and assets

        • rice farmers, businessmen, pond operators

    • tailor technologies

      • partnerships between government researchers, universities, farmers associations and commercial sector

        • feed, hatchery, disease, processing

      • develop learning networks (farmer to farmer)

        • producer associations

    River catfish vietnam23 l.jpg
    river catfish, Vietnam agencies, partners, stakeholders)

    • markets

      • Europe 2003

        • PPP (BMZ/GTZ, Naturland e.V., Binca Seafood GmBH, An Giang Fisheries Association/SMEs; Thai auditing company)

        • organic catfish standards

    • enabling environment

      • govt.-prioritized export oriented aquaculture for economic growth

        • rice culture reduced by 120,000 ha

        • transition from SOE to SMEs

    River catfish vietnam outcomes l.jpg
    river catfish, Vietnam - agencies, partners, stakeholders)outcomes

    • 1 million tonnes (>$1 billion)

      • 1.5% GDP

      • growth of 20% p.a. for ten years

      • employs tens of thousands

      • increased food security

    • sustainability

      • markets (US)

      • environmental

        • strong policy environment and implementing institutions

    Vietnam’s fishery exports (value) 2006