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Aquaculture. Aquaculture. the controlled production of animals that normally live in water (fish farming) three thousand year old practice started by the Egyptians and Chinese. Aquaculture. two types of water creatures freshwater saltwater. Aquaculture.

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aquaculture2
Aquaculture

the controlled production of animals that normally live in water (fish farming)

three thousand year old practice started by the Egyptians and Chinese

aquaculture3
Aquaculture

two types of water creatures

freshwater

saltwater

aquaculture4
Aquaculture

animals raised for production may include

crustaceans (shrimp and crayfish)

mollusks (clams and oysters)

amphibians (frogs)

reptiles (alligators)

aquaculture5
Aquaculture

fish provide a high quality high protein supply of meat

as with other agriculture animals humans soon discovered that by producing their own aquatic animals that the supply available to the consumer would be more dependable and easier to harvest

aquaculture6
Aquaculture

commercial growth growing of fish

five million tons a year produced

demands of the consumer has increased

aquaculture7
Aquaculture

aquatic animals are produced efficiently and economically

fish account for 12% of the meat consumed in the US

fish production
Fish Production

many advantages over other agricultural animals

9lbs. Feed for 1lbs. Of gain for steer

2lbs. Feed for 1lbs. Of gain a fish

fish production9
Fish Production

fish are ectothermic (cold-blooded)

this means less energy goes into maintaining a constant body temp

fish production10
Fish Production

fish have a higher percentage of edible meat (up to 85%)

up to 6000 pounds fish can be raised on one acre

fish production11
Fish Production

Problems in fish production

dissolved oxygen level must be maintained

shipping the meat (fish spoils quickly)

operations are labor intensive

operations are high risk

fish respiration
Fish Respiration

breathe oxygen

use gills to take oxygen from the water and put it to use in the bloodstream

gills act just as lungs do

fish respiration13
Fish Respiration

The oxygen is put into the water through…

photosynthesis

process in which aquatic plants which releases dissolved oxygen into the water

fish respiration14
Fish Respiration

directly from the sun penetrating the oxygen into the waves

aeration by crating waves

fish respiration15
Fish Respiration

if the dissolved oxygen level falls below a certain point the fish may suddenly die (suffocate)

commercially grown
Commercially Grown

grouped into two categories

warm water

thrive in temps above 60 degrees

catfish and tilapia most popular in US

cold water
Cold Water

thrive in waters that are 70 degrees or less

Trout and Salmon most popular in the US

catfish production
Catfish Production

most widely grown production fish in the US

smooth skin with no scales

catfish production19
Catfish Production

nearly 100,000 metric tons produced each year at a value of $380 million

survive on lower levels of dissolved oxygen than most other production fish

channel catfish
Channel Catfish

mose widely used

Mississippi leads in channel cat production

raised in ponds less than 6 feet deep

egg production
Egg production

female catfish lay eggs in nests that are provided by the producer

eggs are collected and placed in tanks or jars in the hatchery

egg production22
Egg production

eggs are moved back and forth by use of paddles in a wave-like action

fish eggs must be turned just as bird eggs are in order to hatch

egg production23
Egg production

When small fish hatch (called fry) they are placed in tanks until they are about two inches long (then called fingerlings)

fingerlings are transferred into a pond or huge tank until they weigh two pounds

egg production24
Egg production

fish are fed twice a day

fish are harvested using seines (large nets)

another method of raising production fish is using large submerged cages

cages
Cages

advantages

fish may be inspected more closely

less feed is wasted

predator problems are solved

harvesting is easier

tilapia production
Tilapia Production

native to Africa

resemble our native sunfish

reproduce prolifically

grow rapidly

tilapia production27
Tilapia Production

can survive high temp, low oxygen and overcrowded conditions

cannot survive in water below 50 degrees

trout production
Trout Production

considered the best tasting fish

high percentage of their body is edible meat

cold water fish

trout production29
Trout Production

most trout are raised in concrete raceways where the water is constantly moving

moving water keeps the water cooler and keeps the dissolved oxygen level higher

trout production30
Trout Production

disease control is easier in this environment

salmon production
Salmon Production

cold water fish

raised in floating net cages that are anchored in bays of oceans

usually takes 18-24 months to finish out the fish

harvested at 9-11 pounds

salmon production32
Salmon Production

very meaty fish with a favorable taste

most salmon that is consumed is caught in the ocean rather than raised in captivity

sport fishing
Sport fishing

hatcheries stock lakes and streams

recreational fishing creates other industry

fishing tackle stores

boats

sport fishing34
Sport fishing

guide services

restaurant, hotel and other stores near the water

bullfrog production
Bullfrog Production

frog legs are considered a gourmet food

most frogs are raised in the wild

demand for frogs far exceed the supply

bullfrog production36
Bullfrog Production

attempts to raise bullfrogs in captivity have been unsuccessful for many reasons

1. Animals are territorial

2. Frogs only eat food that is alive, no processed food

bullfrog production37
Bullfrog Production

3. Predators (raccoons and snakes)

research is still being done to find a way to raise bullfrogs for production purposes

crayfish
Crayfish

Craw Dads, Crawfish, or Mud Bugs

Louisiana leads in crawfish production

1000 pounds per acre can be produced

crayfish39
Crayfish

raised in large earthen ponds that are less than two feet deep

can be grown along with crops such as rice

crawfish are omnivorous (they eat both plants and animals)

crayfish40
Crayfish

main diet is decaying plants, worms and insect larvae

alligator production
Alligator Production

alligators were hunted to a point near extinction

hides are very valuable

conservation efforts have brought the population back

alligator production42
Alligator Production

alligators are harvested at the age of 26 months of age and five to six feet long

hides are sold to make bags, boots, shoes and various other leather type goods

alligator production43
Alligator Production

skulls and teeth are also a hot commodity

meat is very tasty and is sold to restaurants

alligator production44
Alligator Production

process of raising alligators

females build nests from vegetation and mud and lay an average of 40 eggs each time

alligator production45
Alligator Production

producers remove the eggs from the nest to limit the loss to predators

eggs are marked so that the proper end will be in the right position to ensure a good hatch

alligator production46
Alligator Production

eggs are wrapped in hay and are kept moist

the hay contains a bacteria that breaks down the shell allowing the babies to break through the shell

alligator production47
Alligator Production

temperature is critical to determining the sex of the newborn alligator

temps above 93 degrees produce all males

alligator production48
Alligator Production

temps below 86 degrees produce all females

temp of 88 degrees produces an even mixture

alligators are fed fish, products from poultry industry

alligator production49
Alligator Production

carcasses of animals that are slaughtered for their fur only