The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, Grades 1- 6. Last Revised in 2004. This document also includes outlines for History and Geography for Grade 7 and 8 programs. Guideline Structure. Introduction The Program in Social Studies, History and Geography
The Ontario Curriculum: Social Studies, Grades 1- 6 Last Revised in 2004
This document also includes outlines for History and Geography for Grade 7 and 8 programs.
Guideline Structure • Introduction • The Program in Social Studies, History and Geography • Assessment and Evaluation of Student Achievement • Some Considerations for Program Planning in Social Studies, History, and Geography • Part 1 – Social Studies, Grades 1 to 6 • Part 2 – Social Studies, Grades 7 and 8 • Glossary
As with all Ontario Curriculum Guidelines… • This guideline is available at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca
What does the Guideline say about the importance of studying Social Studies, History and Geography? • “…in order to function as informed citizens in a culturally diverse and interdependent world” • “…and to participate and compete in a global economy” • “…to develop attitudes that will motivate them to use their knowledge and skills in a responsible manner”
Purpose of Social Studies • Eco-centric design • “…to examine and understand communities, from local to the global” • Study their “…various heritages, physical systems, and the nature of citizenship within them” • “Acquire a knowledge of key social studies concepts, including change, culture, environment, power, and the dynamics of the marketplace” • “…learn about Canada and the role of citizens in a democratic society within a culturally diverse and interdependent world” • “…acquire skills of inquiry and communication” • “…develop an understanding of Canadian identity and democraticvalues, to evaluate different points of view, and to examine information critically in order to solve problems and make decisions on issues”
The Goals of Social Studies • “A basic goal of the social studies…is to provide students with the foundational knowledge, skills, and attitudes they will need to continue to learn effectively in secondary school”
View of the ideal Social Studies Approach ( p.3, “The Goals…”) • “These goals are equally important. They can be achieved simultaneously In a concrete, practical context through learning activities that combine the acquisition of knowledge with the application of various skills, including inquiry/research, communication, and map, globe, and graphic representation skills.”
Central Concepts in the Social Sciences from Grades 1-12 • Systems and structures • Interactions and interdependence • Environment • Change and continuity • Culture • Power and governance
Expansion of the Central Concepts • p. 4 of the Ontario Guideline outlines related concepts for each central concept • EXAMPLE: * central concept - systems and structures * related concepts - human patterns - community - cooperation - governance - causation/ cause and effect - natural patterns - environment
Roles and Responsibilities in Social Studies • Students - focus is on taking responsibility for their own learning - a sincere commitment to work, study, and the development of cooperative skills - active pursuit of opportunities outside of the classroom to extend their understanding ( e.g., current events)
Roles and Responsibilities in Social Studies • Parents - students perform better if the parent(s) are involved in the their education ( e.g., through workshops and School Council) - become familiar with the curriculum, discuss schoolwork with their child, communicate with teachers about their child’s progress - understand the report card; attend interviews - work with teachers to improve their child’s learning - encourage students to complete their assignments at home - encourage students to take an active interest in current events; opportunities to question and reflect on what is happening in the world - taking an interest in the students’ out-of-school activities ( to develop responsible citizenship) Examples: - reading to a younger child - running errands for a senior citizen - helping a local volunteer organization - participating in an environmental clean-up program
Roles and Responsibilities in Social Studies • Teachers - develop appropriate instructional strategies and methods for assessing and evaluating students’ learning - “bring” enthusiasm to the learning - address different students’ needs -ensure a sound learning environment -opportunities for students to develop skills ( inquiry, communication, map, globe and graphic representation skills) - opportunities to relate new skills to the societal, environmental, and economic conditions and concerns of the world
Roles and Responsibilities in Social Studies • Principals - ensure that each student has access to the best possible educational experience - ensure proper implementation of the Ontario curriculum - ensure that appropriate resources are made available for teachers and students - ensure professional development of teachers - ensuring that every exceptional students is receiving appropriate accommodations and/ or modifications as per the student’s I.E.P.
The Program in Social Studies • Overall Expectations / Big Ideas/ Enduring Understandings • Specific Expectations - Knowledge and Understanding - Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills - Application - Map, Globe, and Graphic Skills
EXAMPLES WITHIN EXPECTATIONS • Examples are given in parentheses • Examples illustarte the kind of skill, the specific area of learning, the depth of learning, and/or the level of complexity that the expectation entails • Teachers “ do not have to cover the full list of examples” but have the option to focus on two or three areas or select an area not identified in the example.
Using Examples in The Specific Expectations • Grade 2 – Features of Communities Around the World • Specific Expectation - identify similarities and differences ( e.g., in food, clothing, homes, recreation, landuse, transportation, language) between their community and a community in another part of the world
Nature of the Expectations • “performance based” • All start with active and measurable verbs • All expectations can be achieved in a variety of ways • All expectations can be demonstrated for assessment purposes in a variety of ways.
Social Studies UnitsGrades 1 to 6 • Two strands or units per grade • Strands are: - Heritage and Citizenship - Canada and World Connections
Assessment and Evaluation of Student Achievement • “The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning. • Helps teachers to determine students’ strengths and weaknesses ( diagnostic assessment). • Use assessment to adapt curriculum and instructional approaches to needs and to determine effectiveness of the program (formative assessment).
To Assess Students • Gather information from a variety of sources: Examples: - assignments - demonstrations - projects - performances - tests Note the focus on performance based assessment.
After Assessment • Teachers provide students with “descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improvement”. • Provide a letter grade that judges “the quality of the students’ work on the basis of established criteria”. • Assigning a criterion based grade is called evaluation.
Ensuring Reliable and Valid Assessment and Evaluation Strategies ( p. 9) • Address both what students learn and how they learn • Are based both on the categories of knowledge and skills and on the achievement level descriptions (pp. 12-13) • Are varied in nature, administered over a period of time, and designed to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning • Are appropriate for the learning activities used, the purposes of instruction, and the needs and experiences of the students. • Are fair to all students. • Accommodate the needs of exceptional students who are learning the language of instruction • Ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement. • Promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals. • Include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their achievement. • Are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the school year and at other appropriate points throughout the year.
What do you evaluate? • P. 10 • “All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction, but evaluation focuses on students’ achievement of the overall expectations.”
Using ACHIEVEMENT CHARTSpp.12-13 • Level 3 is defined as “the provincial standard” for performance of the expectation. • If the student is achieving at Level 3, parents “can be confident that their children will be prepared for work at the next grade”. • Exemplars of students’ work are provided by the Ministry of Education to show teachers examples of students’ work at each level of achievement.
How Achievement Charts Are Used • Provide a framework that encompasses all curriculum expectations for all grades and subjects represented in the document. • Guide the development of assessment tasks and tools. • Help teachers to plan instruction for learning. • Assist teachers in providing meaningful feedback to students. • Provide various categories and criteria with which to assess and evaluate student learning.
Categories in Achievement Charts • Knowledge and Understanding – Subject-specific content acquired in each grade and a comprehension of its meaning and significance. • Thinking – Use of critical and creative thinking skills including planning skills, processing skills, and critical/creative thinking processes. • Communication – The conveying of meaning through various forms ( e.g., oral, written, visual). • Application – The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various contexts ( including subject specific skills such as map, globe, and graphical representation skills).
Subdivisions within the Achievement Charts • Each Achievement Chart contains: * Criteria * Descriptors * Qualifiers
From Categories to Criteria • Example: “Knowledge and Understanding” is sub-divided into the Criteria of: * Knowledge of Content ( e.g., facts, terms, and definitions) * Understanding of Content ( e.g., concepts, ideas, theories, procedures, processes, methodologies and/ or technologies)
Descriptors in Achievement Charts • Descriptors indicate the characteristic of the student’s performance on which assessment or evaluation is focused. • EXAMPLE: “effectiveness” - the teacher must decide for each task, what constitutes “effectiveness” - is “effectiveness” for the given task appropriateness, clarity, accuracy, precision, logic, relevance, significance, fluency, flexibility, depth, breadth, etc.
Qualifiers in Achievement Charts • Specific words are used in each level to explain how well the student has met the expectation. Level 1- “limited” Level 2- “some” Level 3- “considerable” Level 4- “a high degree” or “thorough”
Forming an Evaluation Comment • Qualifier + descriptor = performance comment • EXAMPLE: A Level 3 “Thinking” comment “ The student uses planning skills with considerable effectiveness”.
Recommended Teaching Approaches in Social Studies • Relate the knowledge and skills to wider issues and problems • Emphasize the relationship of Social Studies to the world outside of the school. • Encourage students to recognize the value and relevance of what they are learning • Guest speakers • Visits to local museums, archeological sites, geographic features, art galleries, festivals • Experiences with realistic depictions, actual historical artifacts, and examples of geographic features • Cross-curricular and integrated learning • Study of current events
PLANNING FOR EXCEPTIONAL STUDENTS • The teacher needs to examine: * the curriculum expectations + * the individual student needs …to identify modifications and accommodations that may be needed for each identified student. …to report on modified expectations for each identified student.
ESL Students in Your Social Studies Classroom • “All teachers need to incorporate appropriate ESL students in the social studies…classroom and should find ways to use and adapt resource materials for ESL students.” • Strategies include: * using alternate teaching and learning strategies * modifying subject expectations * highlighting key ideas and giving clear instructions * making frequent use of a variety of concrete and visual supports
Antidiscrimination Education • “Help students acquire the “habits of mind” essential in a complex democratic society” • “Students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of citizenship, as well as a willingness to show respect, tolerance, and understanding towards individuals, groups, and cultures in a global community and respect and responsibility towards the environment.” • “…strengthen students’ ability to recognize bias and stereotypes…” • “…learning activities should reflect diverse points of view and experiences to enable students to become more sensitive to the experiences and perceptions of others” • “Students also learn that protecting human rights and taking a stand against racism and other expressions of hatred and discrimination are essential components of responsible citizenship”.
Literacy, Numeracy and Inquiry/ Research Skills • “Many of the activities and tasks that students undertake in social studies involve the use of written, oral, and visual communication skills”. • “…ensure that the expectations involving communication skills are consistent with the expectations in language for the grade” • “..reinforces certain aspects of the Mathematics curriculum ( e.g., diagrams, charts, maps, tables, graphs)…to organize, interpret and present information” • “…ensure that expectations involving graphing and other mathematics-related knowledge and skills are consistent with the expectations in mathematics for the grade”.
More About Inquiry • “…develop their ability to ask questions and to plan investigations to answer those questions” • “…need to learn a variety of research methods…and to know which methods to use in a particular inquiry ( metacognitive control)” • “…how to locate information from a variety of sources…with increasing sophistication” • “…distinguish between primary and secondary sources, to determine their validity and relevance, and to use them in appropriate ways”
Role of Technology • “…connect students to other schools, at home and abroad, and to bring the global community into the local classroom” • “…use simulations…” • “…to meet diverse student needs…”
Guidance and Social Studies • “…provide ample opportunity for students to learn how to work independently, cooperate with others, resolve conflicts, participate in class, solve problems, and set goals to improve their work” • “…offer opportunities for a variety of career exploration activities (e.g., guest speakers, contacts with career mentors, involvement in simulation programs [ Junior Achievement], and attendance at career conferences)”
Health and Safety • “Teachers must preview and plan ( fieldwork/ field trips) carefully to protect students’ health and safety.”