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Wales- Cymru. Identity and nationalism. Wales (2)-Modern Period. Growth in Welsh nationalism and national consciousness. 1936-the burning of the bombing school in Penyberth. (Saunders Lewis, D.J.Williams, Lewis Valentine). Wales- Cymru. After survival- growth. Wales-Cymru.

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Wales cymru

Wales- Cymru

Identity and nationalism


Wales 2 modern period
Wales (2)-Modern Period

  • Growth in Welsh nationalism and national consciousness.

  • 1936-the burning of the bombing school in Penyberth. (Saunders Lewis, D.J.Williams, Lewis Valentine).


Wales cymru1

Wales- Cymru

After survival- growth


Wales cymru2
Wales-Cymru

  • 1536 Act of Union

  • 1546 First printed book in Welsh.

  • 1567 Translation of Prayer Book and New Testament into Welsh.

  • 1588: Translation of the whole Bible into Welsh- its influence.


William morgan and translation of bible into welsh
William Morgan and translation of Bible into Welsh


Wales modern period
Wales -Modern Period

  • 1707 Edward Lhuyd’s Archaeologia Britannica. Beginnings of Celtic Studies.

  • Mid 18th century- the beginnings of Welsh non-conformity. Howel Harris. Rejection of Anglicanism.

  • 1737-61: the circulating schools of Griffith Jones

  • 1743 The Methodist Association in Wales



Wales
Wales

  • Beginnings of industrialisation in Wales 1757.

  • Iron works,

  • coal-mining,

  • tin works.

  • Dowlais,

  • Merthyr Tudful,



Wales modern period1
Wales -Modern Period

  • Beginnings of industrialization in Wales:

  • The first iron-works in 1757 in Hirwaun, south Wales.

  • The centre of Welsh culture and history shifts to the south-east, the iron works and then the coal industry.


Wales 2 modern period1
Wales (2)-Modern Period

  • Wales had by then (late 18th century and 19th century) become a non-conformist Protestant nation, largely Welsh-speaking (only) and for most of the population living in an industrialized environment (after 1860).


The methodist revival
The Methodist Revival

  • Key names: Howell Harris, Daniel Rowlands and the most prominent: William Williams Pantycelyn. (often just called Pantycelyn).

  • Methodism in Wales was a break with Anglicanism (not officially until the early 19th century). It was an evangelical form of Protestantism inspired by the works of Calvin.


The methodist revival1
The Methodist Revival

  • Pantycelyn was a great writer of religious poems (we would call them hymns) still popular today.

  • Another great eighteenth century Welsh religious writer was Ann Griffiths (1776-1805), who died shortly after childbirth at the early age of 29.

  • Following her death her hymns were written down by her maid’s husband. They are love-songs, full of vividimages and meatphors, reflecting a deep knowledge of the Bible and the beliefs of the Non-conformists (all the non-Anglican versions of Protestantism).


The methodist revival2
The Methodist Revival

  • By the nineteenth century, Welsh Nonconformity was no longer a radical force in religious terms, but rathera social force and institution that dominated Welsh all aspects of Welsh culture.

  • Religious leaders were now the leaders of society in Wales and they disapproved of the older folk culture of Wales.


Rediscovering roots iolo morgannwg
Rediscovering roots: Iolo Morgannwg

  • Iolo Morgannwg (1747-1826) was a prolific poet and keen promoter of ancient Welsh history.

  • He claimed to have ‘discovered’ many poems by the 14th century poet Dafydd ap Gwilym in local manuscripts but they were many invented.

  • He felt that Glamorganshire, his placeplace, deserved a rich literary history, and so he partly invented it!


Wales modern period2
Wales -Modern Period

  • First census in Wales 1801- population of Wales 587,000.

  • Separation of Welsh Methodists from the Church of England (Anglicans).

  • Merthyr Riots 1831. Beginnings of unionisation.

  • Rebecca Riots 1839-44.


Wales 2 modern period2
Wales (2)-Modern Period

  • 1865- a contingent of Welsh people leave for Patagonia in Argentina, founding the still existing and thriving Welsh settlements in South America.

  • 1872 –The University of Wales opens (in Aberystwyth).




Wales modern period3
Wales -Modern Period

  • 1886- the Cymru Fydd movement is founded.

  • 1898-the foundation of the South Wales Miners’ Federation. The ‘FED’.

  • 1916-Lloyd George becomes first Welsh prime-minister of the UK.

  • 1925 Plaid Cymru is founded. The National Party of Wales.


Wales modern period4
Wales -Modern Period

  • Growth in Welsh nationalism and national consciousness.

  • 1936-the burning of the bombing school in Penyberth. (Saunders Lewis, D.J.Williams, Lewis Valentine).


Wales modern period5
Wales -Modern Period

  • Saunders Lewis”s Fate of the Language” radio lecture in 1962.

  • 1962- the formation of the Welsh Language Society (non-violent pressure group, civil disobedience).



Wales modern period6
Wales -Modern Period

  • Period of civil disobedience by members of the Welsh Language Society. Two major campaigns:

    • Road signs in Welsh.

    • The creation of a Welsh-language television channel.

    • http://cymdeithas.org/english/




Wales modern period7
Wales -Modern Period

  • 1964-Creation of the Welsh Office, and James Griffiths appointed first Secretary of State for Wales.

  • 1967-first Welsh Language Act.(‘equal status’in law-courts)

  • 1973-Kilbrandon Commission recommends creation of regional parliament for Wales.


Wales modern period8
Wales -Modern Period

  • Period of civil disobedience by members of the Welsh Language Society. Two major campaigns:

    • Road signs in Welsh.

    • The creation of a Welsh-language television channel.


Wales modern period9
Wales -Modern Period

  • 1979- first referendum on Welsh parliament (assembly).

  • 1982-Welsh-language television channel (S4C) set up.

  • 1988- creation of the Welsh language board as a consultative body.


Wales modern period10
Wales -Modern Period

  • 1991- census reveals increase in numbers of those able to speak Wales.

  • 1993-Second Welsh Language Act passed.

  • 1999 – Welsh National Assembly opens in Cardiff.

  • 2011- Appointment of first Language Commissioner


Second referendum
Second referendum

  • In July 1997, the British Government published a White Paper, A Voice for Wales, which outlined proposals for devolution in Wales.

  • A referendum was held on 18 September 1997. It was very close: 559,419 for and 552,698 against. Just over half the electorate voted.


The national assembly for wales
The National Assembly for Wales

  • The establishment of the national Assembly for Wales in May 1999 changed the nature of politics in Wales by creating a new style of government in which decisions and policies were focused on Wales.

  • Wales remains part of the UK.

  • New powers.





The national assembly for wales1
The National Assembly for Wales

  • The establishment of the National Assembly for Wales in May 1999 changed the nature of politics in Wales by creating a new style of government in which decisions and policies were focused on Wales.

  • Wales remains part of the UK.

  • New powers.

  • http://www.assemblywales.org/sen-home.htm


Wales modern period11
Wales -Modern Period

  • 1991- census reveals increase in numbers of those able to speak Wales. How?

  • 1993-Second Welsh Language Act passed.

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_Language_Act_1993


The 1993 language act
The 1993 Language Act

  • 'in the course of public business and the administration of justice, so far as is reasonably practicable, the Welsh and English languages are to be treated on the basis of equality.'

  • Basically the Act did three things:

  • set up the Welsh Language Board, answerable to the Secretary of State for Wales, with the duty of promoting the use of Welsh and ensuring compliance with the other provisions.

  • gave Welsh speakers the right to speak Welsh in court proceedings

  • obliged all organisations in the public sector providing services to the public in Wales to treat Welsh and English on an equal basis


New language act 2011
New Language Act 2011

  • LCO (Legislative Competence Order)

  • Proposed new measure on the Welsh Language had been expected by summer 2010.

  • http://www.assemblywales.org/lco-ld7372-e.pdf


Second referendum1
Second referendum

  • In July 1997, the British Government published a White Paper, A Voice for Wales, which outlined proposals for devolution in Wales.

  • A referendum was held on 18 September 1997. It was very close: 559,419 for and 552,698 against. Just over half the electorate voted.




The national assembly for wales2
The National Assembly for Wales

  • The establishment of the National Assembly for Wales in May 1999 changed the nature of politics in Wales by creating a new style of government in which decisions and policies were focused on Wales.

  • Wales remains part of the UK.

  • New powers.

  • http://www.assemblywales.org/sen-home.htm