1. Monolithic System • The earliest and most common OS architecture. • Every component of OS contained in the kernel and can directly communicate with any other (i.e by using function call). • The kernel typically executes with unrestricted access to the computer system (refer next diagram)
Application System Call Interface Kernel MM PS IPC FS . . . I/O Net 1. Monolithic System User Space Kernel Space MM- Memory management PS- Process scheduler IPC- Interprocesscommunictaion FS- File System I/O- Input Output manager Net- Network manager
2. Layered System • To overcome the issue of monolithic architecture by grouping components that performs similar functions into layers • Each layer communicates with those above and below it. • Lower-level layers provide services to higher-level layer using interfaces that hide their implementation • Layer OS are more modular than monolithic OS because the implementation of each layer can be modified without requiring any modification to other layers
2. Layered System • Each component hides how it performs its job and presents a standard interface that other components can use to request its services • In a layer approach, a user process’s request may need to pass through many layers before it is services • Early example of layer OS is THE (TechnischeHogeschool Eindhoven) • Many of today’s OS including Windows XP and Linux implement some level of layering. • Main advantage is simplicity of construction and debugging.
2. Layered System user Layer 4 User applications User space Kernel space I/O Management Hardware Layer 3 Operator – process communication Layer 2 Layer 1 Memory management Layer 0 Processor allocation and multiprogramming Layers of THE Operating System • The OS is divided into a number of layers (levels) • The bottom layer (layer 0), is the hardware. • The highest (layer N) is the user interface.
3. VirtualMachines OS • Virtual Machine OS is to support concurrent execution of different operating system on a computer . • The resources of the physical computer are shared to create the virtual machines. • CPU scheduling can create the appearance that users have their own processor. • Spooling and a file system can provide virtual card readers and virtual line printers. • A normal user time-sharing terminal serves as the virtual machine operator’s console.
3. VirtualMachines OS Virtual Machine Non-virtual Machine
3. Advantages & Disadvantages of Virtual Machine OS • Advantages: • provides complete protection of system resources. Each virtual machine is isolated from all other virtual machines. • perfect vehicle for operating-systems RND. • System development is done on the virtual machine, instead of on a physical machine. So does not disrupt normal system operation. • Disadvantages: • This isolation permits no direct sharing of resources. • Difficult to implement due to the effort required to provide an exact duplicate to the underlying machine.
4. Client-ServerModel • Is one of the extended machine
Network Operating System (NOS) • NOS is the system software of a local area network (LAN) that integrates the network's hardware components, usually adequate for connecting up to 50 workstations. • Included such features as a menu-driven administration interface, tape backup of file-server software, security restrictions, facilities for sharing printers, central storage of application programs and databases, remote log-in via modem, and support for discuss workstations. • A network operating system establishes and maintains the connection between the workstations and the file server; the physical connections alone aren't sufficient to support networking.
Network Operating System (NOS) • 2 type of NOS : • Peer to pear • Client Server • Example of NOS operating system • Microsoft Windows (Workgroups) • Microsoft Windows NT Server
Terminologies in OS • Cooperative multitasking • Preemptive multitasking • Multithreading
Terminologies in OS : Cooperative Multitasking • A type of multitasking in which the process currently controlling the CPU must offer control to other processes. It is called cooperative because all programs must cooperate for it to work
Three Major Component of Operating System • Process Management • File Management • Memory Management