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Brain Topography. Dr. Nimir Dr. Safaa. Objectives Demarcate the major lobes, gyri and sulci of the cerebral hemisphere . Describe the organization of the cerebral hemisphere into cerebral cortex ,white matter and nuclei

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Brain topography
Brain Topography

  • Dr. Nimir

  • Dr. Safaa


Brain topography

Objectives

  • Demarcate the major lobes, gyri and sulci of the cerebral hemisphere.

  • Describe the organization of the cerebral hemisphere into cerebral cortex ,white matter and nuclei

  • Describe the types of fibers in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere: projection (internal capsule), commissural and association fibers.


Brain topography

  • The brain is divided into:

  • 1- Forebrain (Telencephalon= cerebrum & diencephalon).

  • 2- Midbrain.

  • 3- Hindbrain (pons ,medulla oblongata, cerebellum).

  • Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres & basal ganglia ).

  • Cerebral hemispheres are seperated by longitudinal fissure into left & right which are connected by corpus callosum.


Brain topography


Brain topography


Brain topography

  • Superolateral into folds or surface

  • Frontal lobe:

  • Is anterior to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral sulcus.

  • Its superolateral surface is divided by three sulciinto four gyri.

  • Precentralsulcusruns parallel to central sulcus, and precentralgyruslies between them.

  • Extending anteriorly from precentralsulcus are superior and inferior frontal sulci.

  • Superior frontal gyruslies above superior sulcus.

  • Middle frontal gyruslies between superior and inferior sulci.

  • Inferior frontal gyruslies below inferior sulcus.


Brain topography

  • P into folds or arietal lobe:

  • Is posterior to central sulcus, superior to lateral sulcusand anterior to parieto-occipital sulcus.

  • Its lateral surface is divided by two sulci into three gyri.

  • Postcentralsulcus runs parallel to central sulcus, and postcentralgyruslies between them.

  • Running posteriorly from the middle of the postcentral sulcus is intraparietalsulcus. Superior to intraparietal sulcus is superior parietal lobule (gyrus).

  • Inferior to the intraparietal sulcus is the inferior parietal lobule (gyrus).


Brain topography

  • Temporal lobe: into folds or

  • Is inferior to the lateral sulcus.

  • Its lateral surface is divided into three gyri by two sulci.

  • The superior and middle temporal sulci run parallel to lateral sulcus and divide temporal lobe into superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri.

  • Occipital lobe:

  • Is behind the parieto-occipital sulcus.


Brain topography

  • Medial into folds or surfaces

  • Corpus callosum is the largest commissure.

  • Cingulate gyrusis above corpus callosum,separatedfrom it by callosalsulcus and from medial frontal gyrusby cingulate sulcus.

  • Paracentral lobule anteriorly is part of precentralgyrusposteriorly is part of postcentralgyrus.

  • Precuneus is part of parietal lobe.

  • Cuneuswhich is part of occipital lobe, is between parieto-occipita & calcrinesulci.


Brain topography

  • Inferior surface into folds or

  • Collateral sulcus runs anteriorly below the calcarine sulcus.

  • Between collateral sulcus and calcarine sulcus is lingual gyrus.

  • Anterior to lingual gyrus is parahippocampalgyrus which terminates in front as uncus.

  • Medial occipitotemporalgyrusis bounded medially by collateraland rhinal sulci and laterally by occipitotemporalsulcus which separate it from lateral occipitotemporalgyrus.

  • On inferior surface of frontal lobe is olfactory sulcuswith olfactory bulb and orbital gyri.


Brain topography

  • Gray matter into folds or consists of nerve cells(neurons) embedded in neuroglia.

  • White matter consists of nerve fibers (axons) embedded in neuroglia.

  • In cerebral hemispheres gray mater is seen in cerebral cortex & basal ganglia.


Brain topography


Brain topography

  • 1 according to their connections: . Commissural fibers:

  • Connect corresponding regions of the two hemispheres. They are:

  • Corpus callosum(splenium ,body, genu, rostrum).

  • Anterior commissure.

  • Posterior commissure.

  • Fornix.

  • Habenularcommissure.


Brain topography

  • 2. Association according to their connections: fibers:

  • Connect various cortical regions within the same hemisphere and may be divided into short and long.

  • Shortassociation fibers connect adjacent gyri.

  • Longassociation fibers:

  • Uncinatefasciculus connects motor speech area & inferior surface of the frontal lobe to temporal lobe.


Brain topography

  • Cingulum according to their connections: within cingulate gyrus connects frontal and parietal lobes to parahippocampal and temporal cortical regions.

  • Superior longitudinal fasciculus connects anterior part of the frontal lobe to the occipital and temporal lobes.

  • Inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects occipital lobe to temporal lobe.

  • Fronto-occipital fasciculus connects frontal lobe to occipital and temporal lobes.


Brain topography

  • 3. Projection according to their connections: fibersare afferent and efferent nerve fibers passing to and from the brainstem & spinal cord to the entire cerebral cortex.

  • Mainly pass within the internal capsule between caudate nucleus &thalamus medially &lentiformnucleus laterally.

  • The fibers radiate to cortical areas as corona radiata.