What actions did the Japanese take in the months after bombing Pearl Harbor? • Invaded Clark Field in the Philippines • Invaded and took control of the Philippine Islands
Bataan Death March • On Philippine Island • Led to the deaths of 10,000+ Filipino and American prisoners
How did the Allies stop the Japanese from overrunning Australia? • Battle of the Coral Sea - US Navy sank one Japanese aircraft carrier and severely damaged two others • Prevented Japanese from establishing bases needed to bomb Australia from prior to an invasion
Battle of the Coral Sea • Both navies not in sight of each other • Aircraft carrier vs. Aircraft carrier • Strategic US victory • Tactical draw • Prevented Japanese invasion of Australia
How did the Allies turn the tide of the war in the Pacific? • Critical victory at Midway Island (June 1942) - prevented any more Japanese offensive actions in the Pacific • Allowed the Allies to take the offensive in the Pacific
Battle of Midway • June 1942 - major US victory - Admiral Nimitz • US intercepted Japanese code and were waiting when Japanese fleet arrived • 4 Japanese carriers sunk • Allowed Allies to take the offensive in the Pacific.
What success did the Allies have with their island-hopping strategy? • Great success - heavy casualties • Put them in a position to reach Japan with long range bombers.
Battle of Guadalcanal • Aug 1942-Feb 1943 • Brutal island fighting • US victory - demonstrated US ability to take control of Japanese held islands • Prevented Japanese from establishing bases from which to invade Australia
How did the decision to build and use the atomic bombs on Japan come about? • Suggestion from Albert Einstein moved FDR to authorize development of an atomic bomb • Scientific and technological ability • Advisory group could not recommend any alternatives.
Battle of Iwo Jima • Bloody fighting • Famous picture • Movie: • Sands of Iwo Jima • Flags of our Fathers • Opened way for potential invasion of Japan • Demonstrated how costly invasion could be in terms of human life
Battle of Okinawa • Bloody fighting • Opened way for potential invasion of Japan • Demonstrated how costly invasion could be in terms of human life
kamikaze • Japanese for “divine wind” - religious significance historically • Suicide pilots intended to destroy enemy (US) ships • Damaged some ships but did not alter outcome of battles at sea
What effects did dropping the atomic bombs have? • Destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan • Led to Japanese surrender (August 14, 1945 - official September 2, 1945) • Killed and injured thousands of Japanese
Manhattan Project • Top secret project that led to the development of the first atomic bomb - tested July 1945 in Los Alamos, New Mexico • Best scientists, physicists, engineers