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Racial and Ethnic Families: Strengths and Stresses. Chapter 5. Increasing Diversity of U.S. Families. Assimilation: Conformity of ethnic group members to culture of dominant group, including intermarriage.

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Racial and Ethnic Families: Strengths and Stresses


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    1. Racial and Ethnic Families: Strengths and Stresses Chapter 5

    2. Increasing Diversity of U.S. Families • Assimilation: Conformity of ethnic group members to culture of dominant group, including intermarriage. • Cultural pluralism: Maintaining aspects of one’s original culture, including language, while living peacefully with host culture. • Acculturation: Adopting language, values, beliefs, and roles of host culture. • Newcomers merge with host culture in most ways

    3. Assimilation

    4. Cultural pluralism

    5. Acculturation

    6. Changes in Immigration • Percent of U.S. population that was foreign born: • 1900 ~15% • 2008 ~11% • Origin of Immigrants to the U.S. • 1900: 85% from Europe, 2% from Latin America and Asia • 2008: 13% from Europe, 81% from Latin America and Asia

    7. Consequences for (Illegal) Immigrant Families • Fear that parent(s) will be arrested and/or deported • Family Break Up • Parent(s) arrested and/or deported • Children drop out of school to work • Who cares for children when parents deported

    8. Minority Group • Minority group: Treated differently or unequally because of physical or cultural characteristics: • Gender • Sexual orientation • Religion • Skin color • Minority Group Lacks Power • Not the number of people • The amount of power

    9. Prejudice & Discrimination • Prejudice: Attitude • Preconceived judgment or opinion (usually negative) • Discrimination:Behavior • Treating people unequally or unfairly

    10. Prejudice Levels of prejudice • Cognitive level (the thought) • Emotional level (the feeling) • Action level (probability of behavior)

    11. Discrimination • Kinds of discrimination: • Verbalization • Avoidance • Exclusion • Physical attack • Genocide

    12. Race and Ethnicity • Racial group: Share physical characteristics viewed as socially important • Ethnic group: Identify with common national origin or cultural heritage: English, Italian, Asian • Racial-ethnic group: Distinctive physical and cultural characteristics

    13. African American Families • Family structure • Single parent families more common • 50% children live with one parent (mother) • Economic • Young black males-- High unemployment rates • Husbands and wives • Problems tied to economic stability

    14. African American Families • Grandparent headed families • Grandparents raising grandchildren • Approximately 20% of black families • U.S. average is 10%

    15. African American Families • Gender Roles • Egalitarian family patterns • Share power • More likely than white couples to share household chores • Not necessarily equally

    16. African American Families • Parents and Children: • Parents emphasize self-control and success in school • Socialization—Cope with racism • Absent fathers • Black family, Bill Cosby • http://www.cbn.com/media/player/index.aspx?s=/vod/JJE05

    17. Strengths of African American Families • Strong kinship bonds • Ability to adapt to outside pressures • Strong work ethic • Determination to succeed in education • Spirituality

    18. Unemployment Rates by Race & Gender

    19. 10/17 American Indian Families • Heterogeneous • 530 Tribes • Living on or off reservation • 70% live off reservation • 27% living below poverty line • 13% of white only • Extended families common • Especially among those living on reservations

    20. American Indian Families • Studies of relationship between husbands and wives: • Unequal sharing of household duties • Both husbands & wives felt competent: • Solving family problems • Coping with everyday issues

    21. American Indian Families • Parents and Children • Children important family members • Children taught respect for authority • Listen and do not interrupt

    22. Native American Families • Emphasize: • Cooperation • Sharing • Integrity • Generosity • Harmony with nature • Spirituality

    23. American Indian Families • Grandparents and other Elders • Old age is “badge of honor” • Elders traditional central role in family decision making • Children taught to respect elders • Emphasis on family unity & cooperation

    24. Grandparents • Grandparents have important roles in children’s lives • “Cultural conservators” take grandchildren to tribal meetings • Powwow: Dance, sing, socialize, and honor American Indian culture • Provide childcare

    25. American Indian Families • Mental Health • Depression & Suicide • Alcoholism • Alcohol related violence & crime

    26. Suicide Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Gender

    27. American Indian Families • Economic Well Being • 1 out of 4 American Indians lives below poverty level • Higher jobless rates than other groups • Unemployment 50-90% on many reservations • Casinos create jobs and economic stability for some Indians

    28. American Indian Family Strengths • “Relational bonding” (collaborative relationships) • Values: Respect & Generosity • Harmony and balance • Community needs above individual needs • Spirituality • Animals, plants, and other environmental elements

    29. Latino/Hispanic Families • Family Structure • 2/3 of children live in two parent families • Divorce more likely now than in 1970s • New immigrants live with family sponsors • Gender Roles • Machismo & marianismo • Parenting--women • Mothers and fathers caring & affectionate with children • Children: Obedient, honest, and respectful

    30. Latino/Hispanic Families • Familism-Family relationships over individual well being • Large extended family networks • Strengthen cultural ties=Send children “home” to spend summers with relatives • About 20% of families live below poverty line • Recent immigrants low wage jobs and poverty • Middle class families increasing

    31. Strengths of Latino families • Resilience • Adaptability • Family networks • Familism= Family first

    32. Asian American Families • Chinese largest Asian American group, followed by Filipino and Asian Indians • Family structures vary: • Asian American households likely extended rather than nuclear families • Female-headed households less common • Husbands and wives follow traditional gender roles

    33. Asian American Families • Filial piety • Respect and Obedience toward parents • Emphasis on Familism • Family more important than individual • Strong emphasis on education • “The model minority” • A stereotype

    34. Asian American Family Strengths • Stable households • Close knit families • Emphasis on success & education

    35. Middle Eastern Families • Middle East includes about 30 countries • Similar values and attitudes about family life • Most Middle Eastern children live with both parents

    36. Middle Eastern Families • Divorce frowned upon • Marriage patterns endogamous • Favor marriage between cousins in some groups • Marriage rarely based on “romantic love”

    37. Middle Eastern Families • Men & women culturally prescribed gender & family roles • Change: More women work outside home • Parents & children strong bonds • Since 9/11/01, Middle Eastern families experienced more discrimination and prejudice in U.S.

    38. Strengths of Middle Eastern Families • Strong family ties • Strong ethnic identities • Extended kin networks

    39. Racial-Ethnic Intermarriage • Number of people who identify as more than one race increasing • Especially in younger age groups • Racial-ethnic intermarriage increased • 1980--3.2% • 2012-- 4.8 million, 1 in 12 couples (8%)

    40. Racial-Ethnic Intermarriage • Black men more than twice as likely to intermarry compared to Black women • In 2010: Nearly 1/4 (25%) of recently married Black males married outside their race • 9%of recently married Black females married outside their race (The Pew Research Center)

    41. Racial-Ethnic Intermarriage • African Americans who married a White spouse more likely to be college educated than those who married within group • 14.5% White-Black couples both attended college • 10.2% of African-American couples college educated

    42. Increase in Intermarriages • 5 Reasons: • Proximity • Availability of potential spouses • Acculturation • Upward mobility • Changing attitudes

    43. Future of Diversity in America • 1 of 3 Americans: Will come from a “minority” background • Euro Americans: Become “numerical minority” • Compared with minority groups • Interracial marriages: Continue to increase