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Racial and Ethnic Relations. Preview Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure Section 2: Patterns of Intergroup Relations Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States Chapter Wrap-Up. Read to Discover

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racial and ethnic relations

Racial and Ethnic Relations

Preview

Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

Section 2: Patterns of Intergroup Relations

Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

Chapter Wrap-Up

slide2
Read to Discover

How do sociologists define the terms race,ethnicity, and minority group?

What characteristics distinguish minority groups from one another?

Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

slide3

Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

Race—a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and whom others see as being a distinct group

Ethnicity—the set of cultural characteristics that distinguishes one group from another

Minority Group—a group of people who, because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices, are singled out and unequally treated

slide4

Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

Question

What are examples or characteristics of race, ethnicity, and minority group?

slide5

Negroid

Hispanic

Caucasoid

Jewish

Race

Ethnicity

Minority Group

Endogamy

Physical

Unequal

Strong bond

Ascribed

Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

Many others

Mongoloid

slide6

Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

Minority Group

  • Identifiable physical or cultural characteristics
  • Victims of unequal treatment
  • Group membership is an ascribed status
  • Members share strong bonds and a sense of loyalty
  • Members tend to practice endogamy—marriage within the group
slide7

Section 2: Patterns of Intergroup Relations

Read to Discover

  • How do discrimination and prejudice differ?
  • What are the most common patterns of minority-group treatment?
slide8

Section 2: Patterns of Intergroup Relations

Question

What are the similarities and differences between prejudice and discrimination?

slide9

Section 2: Patterns of Intergroup Relations

Prejudice

Discrimination

 Denial of equal treatment based on group membership

 Unsupported generalization about a category of people

 Can be individual or societal

 Involves attitudes

 Sociological, psychological

 Involves behaviors

 Can be positive

slide10

Section 2: Patterns of Intergroup Relations

Common Patterns of Minority Group Treatment

Cultural Pluralism—allows each group within society to keep its unique cultural identity

Assimilation—blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity

Legal Protection—legal efforts to ensure the rights of minority groups

slide11

Section 2: Patterns of Intergroup Relations

Segregation—practices that physically separate a minority group from the dominant group

Subjugation—the maintaining of control over a group through force

Population Transfer—transferring a minority population to a new area

Extermination—intentional destruction of the entire targeted population, known as genocide

slide12

Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

Read to Discover

  • What are the conditions under which minority groups in the United States live?
  • How have government policies affected the lives of minority groups in the United States?
slide13

Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

Question

Under what conditions do minority groups in the United States live?

slide14

Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

African Americans—More than 12 percent of the population; making gains toward equality, but statistics show members are lagging in education, employment, and income; becoming more politically active

Hispanics—rapidly growing population; now country’s largest minority group; lagging in income and education; diverse population

slide15

Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

Asian Americans—close to 4 percent of U.S. population; contrast between first-generation immigrants, who are often poor, and second-generation, many of whom succeed educationally and financially; viewed as a “model minority,” although this term is resented; diverse group

slide16

Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

Native Americans—often live on reservations; high poverty and unemployment; poor education; encouraged to assimilate; taking steps to establish sources of income and better schools

White Ethnics—includes some who assimilate quickly and others who remain victims of prejudice and discrimination; making gains in religious tolerance; good education level

slide17

Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

Question

How have government policies affected the lives of minority groups in the United States?

slide18

Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

Government Policies have both helped and hindered minorities.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Segregation

Indian Citizenship Act

Indian Reservations

Native American GravesProtection and Repatriation Act

Japanese American Internment Camps during World War II

Expanded Immigration

Limited Immigration

slide19

Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding Main Ideas

  • What characteristics are used to define race, ethnicity, and minority groups?
  • How are discrimination and prejudice related?
  • List and describe the seven most common patterns of minority treatment.
  • How are the experiences of African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians similar? How are they different?
  • Why have sociologists studied the experiences of white ethnics?
  • Analyze changes such as in food and business in the majority American culture resulting from adaptations to various American Indian cultures.