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Parillo, Chapter 2. Culture and Social Structure. The Concept of Culture. Definition: Culture consists of customs, ideas, language, norms, physical objects, values, and social institutions. Material Culture; Physical objects Nonmaterial Culture; abstract human creations

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parillo chapter 2

Parillo, Chapter 2

Culture and Social Structure

the concept of culture
The Concept of Culture
  • Definition: Culture consists of customs, ideas, language, norms, physical objects, values, and social institutions.
  • Material Culture; Physical objects
  • Nonmaterial Culture; abstract human creations
  • Culture shapes our behavior, … thinking
culture cont
Culture Cont.
  • Norms: Culture’s rules of behavior
    • Internalized
    • Society’s fundamental expectations
    • (Soc 1) Folkways, … Mores
  • Acculturation
    • To learn a society’s cultural patterns
  • Values
    • Figure 2.1, Robin Williams 15 values
culture and the construction of reality
Culture and the Construction of Reality
  • Culture, Language, and Reality
    • Reality is related to our culture
  • Symbols of culture, … words
  • Linguistic Relativity (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis)
    • We interpret our world, … reality by language
    • Language determines how we interpret reality
culture cont5
Culture Cont.
  • The Thomas Theorem
    • If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
  • The vicious-circle phenomenon
    • People create a culturally determined world of reality, - Prejudice, . Discrimination, . Prejudice
  • Cultural Transmission, …(South Pacific)
    • “We have to be carefully taught to hate…”
cultural change
Cultural Change
  • Culture changes through, … discoveries, .. Inventions, .. Technology, .. Innovations, ..natural / environmental events
  • Cultural Diffusion
    • Cultures are influenced by other cultures
  • Borrowed Cultural Elements
    • Ralph Lipton, “100 percent American”
  • Culture Contact
    • Immigration
  • Chain Migration
    • Settling in an area where friends, .. family live
  • Parallel Social Institutions
    • Duplicate social institutions, (Banks, Clubs, ...)
  • Ethnic subcultures
    • Americanized subcultures, usually first and second generation
    • Marginality, … neither ethnic nor American
subcultures cont
Subcultures Cont.
  • Ethnogenesis: an adaptation to the core culture
    • A group consciousness unknown in the ”old country”
    • Modification of immigrant cultural elements
    • Adaptation of core cultural elements
  • Convergent Subcultures
    • Tend toward assimilation to the core culture
  • Persistent Subcultures, … Unassimilated
structural conditions
Structural Conditions
  • Social Stratification
    • The hierarchical classification of members of society based on the unequal distribution of
      • Resources, … Power, … Prestige
  • Resources, … income, property, prestige
  • Power, … ability to influence or control others
  • Prestige, … ones status, achieved or ascribed
social class
Social Class
  • One’s place in the social hierarchy
    • Similar income, property, power, status, lifestyle
  • Socioeconomic Scale (SEC)
    • Education, … Income, … Occupation
  • Upper Class to Lower Class
  • W. Lloyd Warner: Reputational method
  • Minority Social Class status
    • Usually low, … lowest
ethnicity and social class
Ethnicity and Social Class
  • Milton Gordon’s explanation of our pluralistic society
  • Four factors that help form subsocieties
    • Ethnicity (also Race)
    • Social Class
    • Rural or Urban residence
    • Regionalism
  • Combined, … form an Ethclass
    • The intersection of the stratification by race, ethnicity and the stratification of social class
blaming the poor or society
Blaming the Poor or Society
  • E. Franklin Frazier (1932)
    • Theorized of the disorganization and pathology of lower class culture
  • Daniel P. Moynihan (1965)
    • Presented his work on the culture-of-poverty
  • Moynihan argued: … family disorganization was the core cause of lower class (racial, ethnic) problems
    • “…At the heart of the deterioration … (p. 50)
    • Black males occupied a unstable place …
blaming the poor cont
Blaming the Poor Cont.
  • See quoted material on pp. 50 and 51
  • Oscar Lewis, The Children of Sanchez
    • The Perpetuation of Poverty, … “The culture of poverty, … (p.51).
  • Criticisms of the Culture of Poverty theory
    • Is it cultural determinism?
    • Is it economic, structural determinism?
intergroup conflict
Intergroup Conflict
  • Robert E. Park: Race-relation Cycle
  • Four Stages
    • Contact: between groups
    • Competition for economic, social resources
    • Adjustment or Accommodation
    • Eventual assimilation and amalgamation
  • Race referred to racial and ethnic groups
  • Assimilation may be halted for a time but eventually all groups would assimilate
robert e park cont
Robert E. Park Cont.
  • Park’s theory fit NW Europeans nicely
  • Not testable because of … “eventually …”
  • Lack of assimilation attributable to temporary obstacles
  • Parks theory may not (does not) apply to all societies
cultural differentiation
Cultural Differentiation
  • Similarities between immigrant groups and the dominant core tend to promote harmonious relations and assimilation.
  • The greater and more visible the cultural differentiation, the greater the likelihood that conflict will occur.
structural differentiation
Structural Differentiation
  • How structural conditions affect intergroup relations
  • Functionalist: How economic and technological conditions facilitate minority integration
    • With a healthy economy immigrants find an easier time to get established
    • A healthy economy provides occupational mobility
ethnic stratification theories
Ethnic Stratification Theories
  • Lieberson: Power Differential Theory
  • Intergroup relations depend on the relative power of the migrant and indigenous groups
    • Which group becomes superordinate and which become subordinate governs ethnic relations
  • If the newcomer posses superior technology, … ?
  • If the indigenous group has superior technology and power, … ?
internal colonialism theory
Internal Colonialism Theory
  • Robert Blauner (1960)
  • Structural relations of Native Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans reflect a colonial relationship
  • Example: Black Ghettoes, .. three features
    • Blacks forced to live in ghettoes, (North)
    • Ethnic culture was destroyed
    • Controlled from without economically, politically and administratively (p. 60)
assimilation theories
Assimilation Theories
  • Majority Conformity theory (Anglo Conformity), … A+B+C = A
  • English Influence, … language, institutions, values, attitudes and culture
  • Americanization movement, … early 1900s
    • Encourage immigrants to become 100% American
    • Government agencies and private organizations
    • Divest themselves of ethnic characteristics
types of assimilation
Types of Assimilation
  • Milton Gordon: (1964) Assimilation has several phases:
  • Cultural Assimilation, (acculturation)
  • Structural Assimilation, (primary relations)
  • Marital Assimilation, (amalgamation)
  • Identificational Assimilation (like the Core)
  • Attitude Receptional Assimilation (less prejudice)
  • Behavioral Receptional Assimilation
  • Civic Assimilation, (absence of conflict)
milton gordon cont
Milton Gordon Cont.
  • Gordon, … Structural Assimilation is seen as the “keystone” to other phases
  • Some sociologists disagree, … “cultural assimilation does not lead to structural assimilation
  • Secondary Structural Assimilation
    • Impersonal, public social interaction
  • Primary Structural Assimilation
    • Involves close personal interaction
    • [Note the Bogardus Social Distance Scale]
melting pot theory
Melting Pot Theory
  • Amalgamation (Melting Pot) Theory
    • A+B +C = D “E Pluribus Unum”
  • J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, “Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men.”
  • Israel Zangwill (1908), “America is Gods Crucible, the great Melting Pot where all the races of Europe are melting and reforming - …”
  • Did We Melt? Did We All Melt?
assimilation theories cont
Assimilation Theories Cont.
  • Ruby Jo Kennedy: Triple Melting Pot
    • Intermarriage within major religious groupings
  • Anglo-Conformity
    • Take on Anglo-Saxon (English) cultural characteristics
    • A+B+C = A
    • Suggests the “Melting Pot” concept is a myth
    • The American is not a composite or synthesis of various ethnic elements
accommodation pluralistic theory
Accommodation (Pluralistic) Theory
  • Pluralistic Theory recognizes the persistence of racial and ethnic diversity
    • A+B+C = A+B+C
  • Horace Kallen (1915) “Democracy versus the Melting Pot
    • Rejected Assimilation and Amalgamation theories
  • Each group tends to preserve its own language, institutions, and cultural heritage
  • Democracy gives them the right to do so
pluralistic theory cont
Pluralistic Theory Cont.
  • Pluralistic Reality
    • From its beginning, America has been a pluralistic country
  • A+B+C = A+B+C
  • Cultural Pluralism: two or more culturally distinct groups
  • Structural Pluralism: the coexistence of racial and ethnic groups in subsocieties within social-class and regional boundaries
  • [ A+B+C = A+b+c ]
white culture
White Culture?
  • Is There a White Culture?
  • If there is, is it independent of American culture? Is it identifiable as separate from American culture? (See quote on p. 70)
key terms
Key Terms
  • Accommodation (Pluralistic Theory)
  • Acculturation
  • Amalgamation (Melting Pot Theory)
  • Americanization movement
  • Anglo-conformity
  • Assimilation (Majority conformity) Theory
  • Chain migration
  • Convergent subcultures
  • Cultural assimilation
key terms cont
Key Terms Cont.
  • Cultural diffusion
  • Cultural pluralism
  • Cultural transmission
  • Culture [ An American culture? ]
  • Culture of poverty
  • Economic determinism
  • Ethclass
  • Ethnic stratification
  • Ethnic subcultures
key terms cont30
Key Terms Cont.
  • Internal-colonialism Theory
  • Linguistic relativity
  • Marginality
  • Marital Assimilation (Amalgamation)
  • Norms
  • Parallel social institutions
  • Persistent subcultures
  • Power-differential theory
  • Social stratification
key terms cont31
Key Terms Cont.
  • Structural assimilation
  • Structural pluralism
  • Thomas theorem
  • Vicious-circle phenomenon