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Groundwater. 11.3. Earth’s water budget. From Miller’s Living in the Environment. Geology of an aquifer. From Miller’s Living in the Environment. Words to know…. Water table = the top of the layer of water in the ground.

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Earth s water budget
Earth’s water budget

From Miller’s Living in the Environment


Geology of an aquifer
Geology of an aquifer

From Miller’s Living in the Environment


Words to know
Words to know…

  • Water table = the top of the layer of water in the ground.

  • Confining layer = layers of rock that the water can not pass through…it traps the water

  • Spring = where water flows up to the surface of the ground

  • Well = man made hole that goes to the water table & water is pumped to surface


Aquifer
Aquifer

  • Layer of rock that contains groundwater.

  • The water sits between the grains of sand or rock that are connected.

  • The water can move through the sand or rock layer.


Gw use in usa china
GW use in USA & China

From Miller’s Living in the Environment


Areas of aquifer depletion
Areas of aquifer depletion

From Miller’s Living in the Environment


Areas of ground subsidence
Areas of ground subsidence

From Miller’s Living in the Environment


Porosity
Porosity

  • Percentage of open space between particles in the rock.

belmont.sd62.bc.ca


Porosity1
Porosity

  • % of open spaces in given volume of rock

  • Amount of water a rock can hold

  • Influenced by:

    • Sorting

      • poorly sorted = lower porosity

    • Packing

      • tightly packed = lower porosity

      • Loosely packed = higher porosity


Permeability
Permeability

  • How readily the water passes through the open spaces of the rock.

kalkaskacounty.net


Permeability1
Permeability

  • How freely water passes through open spaces.

  • For a rock to be permeable, it must have connected spaces.

  • Influenced by:

    • Size & sorting

      • Consistent sorting & large particles = high permeability

    • Most permeable rock:

      • Coarse particles (sandstone, fractured limestone)


Recharge zones
Recharge zones

  • Area where water can soak into the ground and enter an aquifer.

  • NC road sign example

Nicholas.duke.edu


Saltwater intrusion
Saltwater intrusion

From Miller’s Living in the Environment


Homework
Homework

  • Read pages 320 - 325


Output
Output

  • Sketch and label a cross section an aquifer