Islandness • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUhWD2UswKQ&feature=player_embedded# • 1860s? How is the economy on the Island? • Scared of change – things have barely changed in the past 100 years • Independent – debt • Anything we have fought for we want to keep
Historical Context 1860s • US in civil war- industrial north vs slave owning south • National movements in Europe took over the German and Italian states • End of age of imperialism - French Revolution 1789-1799 • Colonial Union was driven by political visions of industrial progress, public works, and material well being • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hph52hbhYZQ&feature=player_embedded
Maritime Union 1864 • Charles Tupper was leader of the Maritime Union movement • He approached John Hamilton Grey, the Island Premier to send delegates to a conference to discuss this federal union between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick • Grey agreed on the condition that the conference be held in Ch’town. • In the meantime, Canada East and West were in political deadlock. Needed to add a couple of provinces to shake it up a bit. • Recipe for confederation?
Charlottetown Conference 1864 • Circus in town. W.H Pope met them on the ship in a dirty row boat. They had to stay the night on the ship due to lack of hotel space. • Decided right away not to discuss maritime union but discuss the idea of a confederation of all BNA colonies • Dreams of a nation from sea to sea – but not like the U.S • But PEI mostly interested in money to buy out the last of the landlords
Quebec Conference Oct 10 • Quebec conference was more formal • Major Points for Maritime Union • Defence against the U.S military • Lower Intercolonial trade barriers • An Intercolonial Railway • A nation stretched from sea to sea • Would these goals interest PEI? • What were their interest?
End of the conference • PEI opposed almost every resolution • Ended the conference with tours of the Canadian cities ( Montreal, Toronto and Que city) and a couple of free suppers for the delegates • One last meeting • But.... Edward Palmer skipped the last meeting early to get ahead start of the political rhetoric that soon dominated the politics for the next 9 years
Lessons on Hegemony • "I believe that if we had and would keep our dirty, bloody, dollar soaked fingers out of the business of these [Third World] nations so full of depressed, exploited people, they will arrive at a solution of their own. And if unfortunately their revolution must be of the violent type because the "haves" refuse to share with the "have-nots" by any peaceful method, at least what they get will be their own, and not the American style, which they don't want and above all don't want crammed down their throats by Americans." • -General David Sharp [Former United States Marine Commandant 1966] • How can we connect this to confederation?
Hegemony of Confederation • Ideas of nationalism and industrialism. This was the driving force between confederation. Other colonies of Britain, India and the United States, are asking, well really fighting for independence. Once these nations are independent, they can grow. They can collect taxes from a larger body, increasing their capital, which allowed them to finance their goals; industrialism. Build infrastructure, create bureaucracy, provide education ..... Why do we provide education? Well according to Pink Floyd, to mass produce a consenting society that will abide by the values put in place by the bourgeois. • What was PEI’s reaction to confederation?
Importance of questioning • PEI, by waiting to join confederation were offered better terms in the end. Because they questioned the resolutions at the conference( although the way they approached it made them look foolish) they ended up joining confederation with a better deal. • General lesson: • Don’t assume, it’s in your assumptions where truth hides. • We can only do better if we question, reflect, and are self –critical. If you play sports, how do you perform better? Find your weaknesses. So how do we become smarter? More knowledgeable? More successful? • Question everything. • But don’t be afraid of being “wrong”. We learn from our mistakes.
Rejection of hegemony- leads to violence • Tenant League – withhold all rent.Why? • Raise money to buy land from absentee landlords. • Tin horns to warn that a rent collector was coming People hide or rush over and drive land agent out. • 11 000 member by 1865 on PEI – Widespread movement • Represented the majority of the population • Donald MacDonald had his barns burned • Leaders didn’t tell Islanders to use violence • March 1865 Tenant Rally, sheriff tried to arrest Sam Fletcher because of his overdue rent, RIOT, he escaped • Scared the land agents and the government • So the military was brought in to assist in collecting rents. Why would the government be concerned? • And stayed until 1867 • Land Agents reconsidered their occupation. Some sold out.