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Chapter 15 - Russian Revolution. Two Revolutions From Lenin to Stalin Life in a Totalitarian State. Maps – South America (p730). Required Extra Credit Argentina Belize Brazil Bolivia Chile Costa Rico Colombia El Salvador Ecuador Guyana Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua

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chapter 15 russian revolution

Chapter 15 - Russian Revolution

Two Revolutions

From Lenin to Stalin

Life in a Totalitarian State

maps south america p730
Maps – South America (p730)

RequiredExtra Credit


Brazil Bolivia

ChileCosta Rico

ColombiaEl Salvador

Ecuador Guyana

Guatemala Honduras

Mexico Nicaragua

Panama Paraguay

Peru Uruguay


russian revolution
Russian Revolution
      • Long-Term Unrest
          • Rich vs. Poor (bourgeoisie & proletariat)
            • Royal families lived LAVISH lifestyles while the poor starved
          • Weak Leadership – Nicholas II
            • Move from Autocracy towards some democratic monarchy
            • Lost control of the Duma
          • Revolutionaries press for change – radical plots
            • Socialists press for change – government not helping the people
      • World War I Impact
          • Poor leadership and massive death toll stretches Russia’s resources
            • Millions die in war far away (nothing in it for the Russian people)
            • Russian generals are using old tactics to fight new type of war
          • Czar Nicholas II to front backfires
            • Things get worse under the Czar’s leadership
the fall of the czar
The Fall of the Czar
  • Rasputin
      • A mystical leader with an unusual ability to put people

under “his spell” –quickly the royals were following him

      • Czarina Alexandra under Rasputin’s control when he was

able to help her son czarivich Alexei

      • Loyal followers fear Rasputin’s control over the Czar – plot his assassination
      • Several attempts failed before he was finally killed
  • Collapse of Monarchy
      • WWI disasters, food/fuel shortages bring unrest
      • Monarchy falls under pressure from both sides
        • Czar and his family are taken by the Communist rebels
        • Czar is forced to abdicate his throne
        • Held for 14 months before the royal family is killed
the november revolution
The November Revolution
  • Bolshevik Takeover
    • Lenin returns to Russia to lead the revolt (assisted by Trotsky & Stalin)
    • WWI going BADLY, mutiny and desertion common
    • Peasants seized lands and drove landlord (royals) off their lands
    • The “Red Guard” (armed workers) turned against Provisional government
    • When the government fell, the communists (Reds) and democrats (Whites) fought for control
  • Bolsheviks in Charge
    • Bolsheviks took control in city after city
    • They took the Kremlin in Moscow and seized control of Russia
    • Declared a communist state – ended private ownership of land, gave it to peasants. Workers given control of factories and mines
    • Made peace with Germany – Russia was now out of WWI
the russian civil war
The Russian Civil War
  • Opposing Forces
    • For 3 years, a civil war between the Red Russians and White Russians
    • Allies supported the White Russians, hoping for democracy by sending troops
    • Reds appealed to ‘nationalism’ and the foreign troops were driven out
    • Both sides brutal to the other (thousands of prisoners of war killed)
  • War Communism
    • Communists took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads (for war effort)
    • Peasants forced to give food to cities, serve in military or work in factories
    • Army used to fight the White Russians and to control the people
    • Commisars used military to teach party principles (communism)
  • A Costly Triumph
    • By 1921, Communists defeated all foes, but Russia was in chaos
    • Millions had died in war, famine, flu epidemic
    • Lenin had triumphed, but the work ahead of him was going to be rough
russian revolution1
Russian Revolution
  • Lenin and the Bolsheviks
      • Adopted into a troubled family, Lenin’s family was branded as trouble when his ‘brother’ was executed for plotting to kill the Czar
      • Lenin hated the Czarist government because of it
      • Worked to convince workers to revolt against the Czarist government
      • After he was arrested and sent to Siberia, Lenin left Russia
  • Marxism
      • He continued to work for revolution to Marx’s view of communism
      • Adapted Karl Marx’s Communism to Russian conditions
      • “Bolsheviks” (ruling elite) would lead the revolution over capitalism
      • “Peace, Land, Bread” became rally cry
  • November Revolution
      • 6 month civil war between “Red” Russians and “White” Russians
      • Bolsheviks quickly seized power, took control of everything
      • “Commissars” taught party principles and ensured party loyalty
building the communist soviet union
Building the Communist Soviet Union
  • Government (constitution a mixture of communism and democracy)
    • USSR – united much of old Russian empire (multinational state)
    • All shared certain equal rights (in theory)
    • Reality was the Communist party held ALL the power
    • Party used the military and secret police to enforce its will
    • Russia dominated over the other ‘states’ of the USSR
  • Lenin’s NEP (new economic policy)
    • Economy under “war communism” was near collapse
    • The state kept control of most of the economy with a few areas of capitalism
    • Economy would recover (due to ability to profit) but change was temporary
  • Stalin gains power
    • Lenin died in 1924 – struggle for power between Trotsky and Stalin
    • Trotsky, a shroud politician, was the best qualified to take over
    • Stalin, the enforcer, used his position and loyal followers to become the leader
stalin gains power
Stalin gains power
  • Lenin expressed fears of what Stalin would do to his country
    • Trotsky a true believer in worldwide revolution and communism
    • Stalin wanted to concentrate on building a strong socialist country in the USSR
    • Stalin able to gain control by placing his loyal followers in top party jobs
    • Trotsky isolated and thrown out of the Communist party
    • He fled but continued to criticize Stalin
      • In 1940 – Trotsky was murdered in Mexico by an agent sent by Joseph Stalin
stalin s 5 year plans
Stalin’s 5 Year Plans
  • Stalin set out to make the USSR a modern industrial power
    • 1928 – Introduced a series of 5 year plans to modernize
    • All economic activity was put under government control (command economy)
  • Mixed Results
    • ++ Production goals set high – government pushed workers (reward those who did meet goals, punishing those who did not)
    • ++ For next 10 years, industry built up (dams, transportation, factories, mining, etc)
    • -- The country advanced, but life for the peasants was just as bad a before
    • -- Central planning led to shortages of food, fuel
    • -- Managers, pushing to meet goals, had not concerns for quality
  • Revolution in Agriculture
    • NEP put agriculture under government control
    • Peasants given small plots of lands (inefficient, did not meet goals, threat to central power)
    • COLLECTIVES created (large farms operated by peasants), controlled by government
    • Seed, farm machinery, labor controlled. Food needed for city workers
  • A Ruthless Policy
    • Peasants resisted, killed thousands of farm animals, destroyed tools, burnt crops
    • Stalin decided to destroy the KULAKS (wealthy peasants) – took lands, sent to labor camps – overworked till death
    • Peasants only grew enough to feed themselves. Government seized all food. Millions will starve to death
    • Collectivization increased control but did not increase yeild
stalin s ussr
Stalin’s USSR
  • Stalin’s Great Purge
      • Stalin’s power absolute (he feared rival leaders plotted against him)
        • Secret police used to crack down on ANY opposition (in & out of party)
        • Old army heroes, managers, writers, ordinary citizens targeted
      • Crack down on those he saw as a threat (execution or Siberia)
        • Show trials held to force “confessions” from most noted
        • Most were not tried, but were sent to “labor camps” in Siberia
      • More than 4 million “purged” during this era
        • Stalin’s power increased, those left owed him loyalty to survive
        • All Soviet citizens knew the price of “disloyalty”
        • Many military leaders part of the purges – would really hurt USSR in WWII
soviet foreign policy
Soviet Foreign Policy
  • 2 goals pursued by Stalin’s USSR
    • Worldwide Revolution – spread communism to other nations
      • COMITERN – created to aid revolutionary groups in other nations
      • Propaganda against western powers used to convince their citizens and other nations that communism was the way to go
      • Western nations highly suspicious – “RED SCARE”
      • US broke off relations in 1917, support counter revolutionaries
      • GB broke off relations in 1920’s when proof shown that USSR was supporting a revolutionary group in England
    • Secure National Security
      • Build up a huge military
      • Allied with nations to build support
three revolutions compared
Three Revolutions Compared
  • US, French and Russian revolutions occurred within 150 years
    • US least radical
      • No mass executions or seizing of property
    • French
      • Thousands executed, lands and Church nationalized
      • Wealthy class striped of their riches
    • Russian
      • Stalin seized all land
      • His policies cost the lives of millions
  • All three had worldwide influence
    • US –models of democracy (Declaration of Independence & Constitution)
      • Many nations continue to build on democracy or are moving towards it as a form of government
    • French – inspired revolutions throughout Europe
    • Russia – model of communism, supported revolutions
      • Most have rejected Lenin/Stalin & communism
stalin s ussr1
Stalin’s USSR
  • Totalitarian Control
    • Terror
      • To ensure obedience, Stalin used secret police, purges, censorship and terror
      • Nothing appeared in print without government approval
      • Critics were rounded up and sent to labor camps where many died
    • Propaganda
      • Technology allowed government to bombard public with communist successes and the evils of capitalism
      • Newsreels showed huge crops, great successes of Soviet industry & military
      • They also showed the horrid conditions of workers in capitalist nations
      • Extreme nationalism exalted. “PRAVDA” (the truth) linked enemies to anti-communist activities
      • 14 year old boy hailed as a national hero for turning in his father
stalin s ussr2
Stalin’s USSR
  • War in Religion
    • Atheism the official stance of the Communist party
    • Russian Orthodox Church, Jews targeted (leaders killed, churches destroyed)
    • One show trial charged 15 Catholic priests with “counterrevolutionary activities”
    • Communist ideology replaced religion for all good soviet families
    • Portraits of Stalin and Lenin were found in almost every household (replacing religious icons)
changes in soviet society
Changes in Soviet Society
  • The New Elite
    • Communist Party officials became elite
    • Industrial leaders, military leaders, scientists became elite
    • Elite enjoyed benefits denied to the rest of the population
        • Houses, vacations, shop at stores with plentiful supplies
  • Social Benefits and Drawbacks
    • Free education, free medical care, free child care, inexpensive housing
    • Bread was plentiful (most other foods in short supply)
  • Education
    • All children required to attend state schools
    • Schools created workers for industrial state
    • Taught Communist principles, the glory of collective farming, the love of Stalin
  • Women
    • Women worked for the revolution/party spreading communist principles
    • Women won equality under the law (jobs, education)
    • Women played a key role in the building of the Soviet Union
the arts and the state
The Arts and the State
  • The Arts used to “serve politics”
  • Socialist Realism
    • Under Stalin, the state forced artists and writers to conform to a style called “Socialist Realism”
    • It showed Soviet life in a positive form
    • Promoted hope in a communist future
    • Popular themes were peasants working hard for the love of country and Stalin
  • Censorship
    • Government controlled what was printed, heard, displayed
    • Artists who ignored lost jobs and maybe sent away
    • Many chose not to publish their works under Stalin
    • Great works were created despite censorship
looking forward
Looking forward
  • In 1953, Joseph Stalin died
  • The Soviet Union was a world super power, both industrially and militarily
  • Stalin’s efforts to reach this goal had brutal results
    • USSR a one party state under tyrannical control of Stalin
    • People lived in fear of the totalitarian regime
    • People lived in poverty (equally)
    • Germany and Italy will also develop brutal one-party states prior to World War II
    • They will also impose dictatorial rule on their people
  • What is communism? What conditions in Russia led Lenin to push for a revolution and to set up a communist country?
  • How was Stalin’s rule different from that of Lenin? Give specific examples
  • Explain what “TOTALITARIAN RULE” is and how it was used by Stalin to increase his power and the power of the USSR