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Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution

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Russian Revolution

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  1. Russian Revolution Two Revolutions in Russia

  2. Causes of the Revolutions

  3. In the 1800s, Russia failed to keep pace with the rapid changes taking place in Western Europe The Enlightenment led to new democratic reforms throughout West Europe In Russia, the Romanov czars continued to rule as absolute monarchs Czars like Alexander III used secret police to monitor citizens, censored the media, & sent political prisoners to labor camps in Siberia Czars organized pogroms (violent attacks) against ethnic minorities like Jews & Poles in Russia Czar Alexander III

  4. Absolute Monarchy: Czar’s Autocratic Rule • pictures of Romanov family Unlimited power and Inefficient & corrupt government

  5. Czar Nicholas gave Alexandra Faberge eggs

  6. Nicholas was born into the throne • His wife: Alexandra was German born (fighting against Germany in WWI) • When Nicholas goes to battlefront during war he allows his wife to run the country – Russians at home don’t like a German running things

  7. In 1894, Czar Nicolas II came to power but failed to address major problems from 1904 to 1917 In 1905, Russian commoners met outside the czar’s Winter Palace to demand better working conditions, right to form unions, & a democratic constitution The protest became known as “Bloody Sunday” when the czar’s guards fired into the crowd ; Riots broke out across Russia In 1905, Nicholas II agreed to new constitution that created a Duma (parliament) & limited monarchy; But Nicholas ignored the Duma

  8. Class Distinctions • How the rest of the population lived:

  9. The poor (majority of Russians) lived a very different life than Czar and Czarina. They had to wait in bread lines for food and often struggled with malnutrition and famine especially in times of war.

  10. Russia’s involvement in World War I proved to be the fatal blow to Czar Nicholas’ support in Russia The Russian military was no match for the German army Russia had difficulty producing weapons for soldiers on the front, food shortages were common for troops & civilians, the lack of trains slowed supplies & communication Russian soldiers running from German army, 1918 Russia drafted 15 million soldiers & nearly 7 million were killed or wounded; 1.5 million civilians died

  11. Impact of WWI 1914 • Czar went to front which was a disaster and it left the Czarina in charge at home • People didn’t trust Czarina because she is German • ill-trained, ineffective officers, poorly equipped (Russia was not ready for total war) – the result was mass desertions and 2 million casualties by 1915 (second year of war)

  12. Rasputin the “holy man” • When Czarina in charge during war get help from him • Really an illiterate peasant • Czarina believed he had miraculous powers • Helped the royal family’s hemophiliac son • By 1916 he had gained power, so on December 29, 1916 he was killed by nobles • Led to more distrust of the royal family

  13. The February Revolution No more Czar, Moderate reforms

  14. Collapse of the Monarchy • Monarch’s power decreased because of low food and fuel, failures on the battlefield, an the St Petersburg workers on strike • On advice of advisors the Czar resigned • The Duma (provisional government) planned a constitution but still was at war with Germany • Peasants want LAND, proletariat wants FOOD

  15. Kerensky and the Military • Kerensky is a moderate communist in charge of the provisional government • He is in favor of gradual socialist reform • A Russian general attempted to overthrow Provisional Government with the power of the military – this failed but scared Kerensky • To prevent military takeover, Kerensky freed many Bolshevik leaders from prison and supplied arms to many revolutionaries

  16. Lenin and Bolsheviks • Lenin was born in 1870 and hated Czarist government (brother had been killed trying to assassinate a czar) • He was a Marxist believer and had been sent into exile for spreading his ideas • After the February Revolution he returns to Russiain April and named his party the Bolsheviks (meaning “majority”) • He preached that World War I (then known as the Great War) was a capitalist/imperialist war that offered no rewards for the peasants/workers; he also felt the war was over w/ the czar’s abdication • Bolshevik party membership explodedand their power was consolidated

  17. October Revolution “Peace, Land, and Bread” – Bolsheviks

  18. Bolshevik Takeover • October 1917: Crowds of Red Guards (armed factory workers) join the Russian fleet fighting attacking the government • In days they overthrew the government without a struggle • Wanted to get out of the war immediatelyso signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

  19. Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia & led the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution in October1917 Lenin’s message of “peace, land, & bread” helped him gain popularity among the Russian people Bolshevik Red Guards seized control of the provisional government & declared themselves the new gov’t leaders of Russia The Bolsheviks arrested & executed the Romanovs which ended 300 years of rule by czars in Russia

  20. After the success of the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin announced major reforms for Russia Lenin ordered all farmland to be distributed among the peasants Lenin gave control of the factories to the workers Lenin signed a truce with Germany (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) & gave up huge territories in order to get Russia out of the war

  21. Then war breaks out over who should be in charge…the Bolsheviks (radicals) or Mensheviks (moderates)

  22. Russian Civil War After the Peace with Germany (Brest-Litovsk 1918)

  23. The Russian Revolution led to a civil war between the Bolshevik Red Army & the White Army (people who wanted a new czar, democracy, or land back) Britain, France, & USA supported the White Army to get Russia back into WWI

  24. Effects of the Revolution USSR

  25. Red’s version of Communism • Look over everything to bring “surplus of food” to people • Trotsky used violence in army (shot 1 in 10 in army if did not fight well) • Commissars (communist party officials assigned to army to teach party principles and ensure loyalty)

  26. Lenin to Stalin • Joseph Stalin battled Leon Trotsky for power and took control of the government after Lenin’s death in 1924 • In power from 1924-1953 • Preserved certain revolutionary goals & improved living standards • Departed from pure Communist ideology

  27. The Communist Party Stalin was a totalitarian dictator who transformed the USSR into a police state Stalin led the Great Purge to eliminate potential rivals in the Communist Party (He executed 8-13 million) Stalin used propaganda & censorship to control information & began education programs to teach communist ideals & loyalty to Russia children

  28. The Five Year Plans Stalin created a series of Five Year Plans to overhaul the Soviet economy Stalin seized control of the economy & set high production quotas on steel, coal, oil, electricity Stalin’s Five Year Plans dramatically improved Soviet industry & helped modernize the military

  29. Individual Rights Stalin declared men & women equal in the USSR; Women’s rights increased as women could vote & join the Communist Party Women were expected to work in factories and on collective farms like men Stalin attacked all religion & created a nation of atheists (no emphasis on religion); Stalin ordered destruction of Orthodox churches & Jewish synagogues

  30. Secret Information about the Communist Party Never more than 15 percent of the Soviet population was in the Communist party during the lifetime of Josef Stalin. From 1935-1937 Stalin executed, imprisoned or exiled one quarter of the Communist party - around 600,000 people. The Communist party, the "party of the working class" never had more than 52 percent of its membership from the working classes. Communist leaders lived in luxury and privilege. During the famines, they continued to eat well, using their influence to find better food and to gain other privileges.

  31. Effect Russian Revolution had on WWI • Prior to the revolution Germany was fighting in two fronts • After the revolution Germany can concentrate all of its forces in the west, giving them a greater chance at success and leading the war to last longer

  32. Closure Questions • Name one major cause of the Russian Revolution. • What was the outcome of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? • How did the USSR’s version of communism differ from that envisioned by Karl Marx?