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National Smallpox Vaccination Program Update

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  1. National Smallpox Vaccination Program Update Mehran S. Massoudi Smallpox Preparedness and Response Activity National Immunization Program MMassoudi@cdc.gov June 3, 2003

  2. Objectives of Presentation • Describe • Smallpox Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and outcomes • Smallpox vaccine Adverse Events • Strategies for control of smallpox • CDC smallpox response planning • Program Update • Partnership in emergency response

  3. The Burden of Smallpox • First described in Chinese text in 4th century AD • More deaths from smallpox than from plague and all wars together • Last case in U.S. in 1949 • 1960s: 15 million smallpox cases and 2 million smallpox deaths per year

  4. THE DISEASE IS GONE!LAST CASES OF SMALLPOX** Rahima Banu – 16 October 1975 Variola Major-Bangladesh Ali Maow Maalin – 26 October 1977 Variola Minor-Somalia ** Two laboratory acquired cases occurred in UK in 1976

  5. Variola Virus • Orthopoxvirus • Infects only humans in nature • May remain viable in crusts foryears at room temperature • Rapidly inactivated by UV light, chemical disinfectants

  6. Smallpox Rash • Vesicles often have a central depression (“umbilication”) • Pustules raised, round, and firm to the touch - like a small bead in the skin • Lesions on palms and soles (>50% of cases)

  7. Smallpox Transmission • Common: Person – to –person by airborne droplets • Face-to-face contact (6-7 feet) • Should be able to interrupt by droplet maskprotection (N-95) • Rare: airborne over long distance • No carrier state • Rare: as fomites • Bedclothes, linens, blankets • Not transmitted by: food, water

  8. Factors Influencing Smallpox Spread • Temperature –Lower temperature, higher viability with aerosols • Humidity–Lower humidity, higher viability with aerosols • Intensity and duration of contact • Contagious period when exposed • Population density • Coughing/sneezing

  9. Smallpox Vaccine

  10. Smallpox Vaccine • 1796: Edward Jenner develops vaccine • Live vaccinia virus in calf lymph • 1940s: Freeze dried vaccine obviated need for cold chain • 1971: Routine vaccination stopped in U.S. • New vaccine produced using cell culture technology

  11. Smallpox Vaccine • Schedule • 1 successful dose >18 years of age • Revaccination • 10 years (risk of contact with nonhighly attenuated vaccinia and recombinants) • 3 years (high risk of contact with more virulent Orthopoxviruses)

  12. Current vaccination tool Bifurcated needle (Needle-shielding, safety bifurcated needles are in development by Becton-Dickinson, Univec, and perhaps others)

  13. Smallpox Vaccine Adverse Reactions • Inadvertent autoinoculation • Eczema vaccinatum • Generalized vaccinia • Progressive vaccinia (vaccinia necrosum) • Postvaccinial encephalitis • Other dermatologic conditions

  14. Facial autoinoculation

  15. Generalized Vaccinia

  16. Eczema Vaccinatum

  17. Eczema Vaccinatum (contact)

  18. Eczema Vaccinatum (contact) Residual Scar after recovery 12-D-27

  19. Progressive Vaccinia

  20. Progressive Vaccinia

  21. Smallpox VaccineContraindications and Precautions Nonemergency Situations • Severe allergic reaction to prior dose or vaccine component • Immunosuppression or immuno-suppressed household contact • Pregnancy • Eczema, history of eczema, or household contact with eczema or history of eczema • Other skin conditions • Age <18 years

  22. CDC Smallpox Response Plan

  23. Smallpox Response Plan and GuidelinesOverview • Working document to be updated periodically • Identifies federal, state and local public health activities necessary to respond effectively to a confirmed case of smallpox • CDC Director, in consultation with DHHS, may implement all or portions of the plan

  24. Contacts of Contacts Contacts of Case(s) Case(s) Ring Vaccination: Search and Containment • Search for cases • Provide a ring of immunity around each case • Used to eradicate smallpox • required to control disease in face of ‘routine immunization’ • minimizes adverse events • most efficient use of vaccine supplies • Workable for multiple cases / locations

  25. December, 13 2002 Announcement of U.S. Smallpox Plan

  26. The Federal Plan(announced 12/13/02) • Vaccinate civilian smallpox response teams • Vaccinate Department of Defense personnel • Vaccinate selected staff in overseas assignments (Department of State) • Vaccination not recommended for the general public at present – However, accommodate those who insist..

  27. National Smallpox Vaccination Program, Stage IImplementation Plan

  28. Goal of the Plan Increase the nation’s bioterrorism preparedness by safely and expeditiously immunizing members of smallpox public health and health care response teams.

  29. Smallpox Public Health Response Teams • Public health and medical personnel needed to investigate initial suspected cases and initiate control measures • Includes medical, public health, epidemiologic, laboratory, nursing, other skills • Each state should have at least one team

  30. Smallpox Healthcare Response Teams • Healthcare personnel from participating hospitals who will be asked to evaluate, manage, and treat the initial suspected cases • Hospitals with appropriate facilities that choose to participate -- identified by state (and local) public health officials. • Hospitals with assistance from state (and local) public health officials will identify participating healthcare personnel.

  31. CDC Responsibilities • Support state activities • Provide clinical care guidelines – ACIP/HICPAC • Training/education materials for all aspects of the program • Ensure integrated information management systems • Provide vaccine (and VIG and Cidofovir if needed) • Ready access - consultation on adverse events • Communication with public, government, healthcare community, etc. at national level • Monitor program • Process (IOM, DSMB) • Safety and efficacy of vaccine (ACIP)

  32. State Responsibilities(with Hospitals) • Identify public health and healthcare response team members • Schedule vaccinations • Set up vaccination clinics • Document/track vaccine take in team members • Adverse event evaluation, treatment, and monitoring procedures • Communication with public, government, healthcare community, etc. in state

  33. Program Update

  34. Partnership in Emergency Response Preparedness and Response to Disasters and Public Health Emergencies

  35. Background All disasters begin locally… “Disasters are emergencies of a severity and magnitude resulting in death, injuries, illness and/or property damage that cannot be effectively managed by the application of routine procedures or resources” (FEMA) Public Health issues exist in almost all disasters

  36. Local Preparedness Is Essential • Initial Detection • Initial Response

  37. Public Health Role in Emergencies • Health and medical evaluation and recommendations • Worker health and safety • Risk assessment and communication • Population monitoring and follow up • Exposure assessment

  38. CDC Emergency Response Plan AddressesPublic Health Assistancefor: • Natural Problems • Hurricanes • Severe Weather • Earthquakes • Volcanic Eruptions • Floods • Severe Heat/Cold • Disease Outbreaks

  39. Public Health Assistance For: • Technological Problems • Radiation • Hazardous Chemicals • Oil • Biological

  40. Public Health Assistance For: • Terrorism • Chemical • Biological • Radiological • Nuclear • Explosion

  41. Disasters, terrorism and other public health emergencies all require rapid mobilization of resources and experts across agencies and across jurisdictional lines

  42. Emergency Public Health • NOT a new public health activity • IS a new public health priority • Different culture • Different way of doing business • National security and law enforcement involvement • Partnership with Emergency Management

  43. How Does CDC Get Involved? • State/Local Request • Federal Activation/ Deployment • Federal Response Plan (FRP) • National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) • Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP)

  44. Federal Response Plan “The Federal Response Plan (FRP) establishes a process and structure for the systematic, coordinated, and effective delivery of Federal assistance to address the consequences of any major disaster or emergency declared under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act.”

  45. Federal Response Plan • Signed by 27 Federal Agencies and American Red Cross; • All hazards approach adopted in April, 1992 and revised in 1999; • Response organized under the Incident Command System structure; • Cross-walk with State Emergency Response Plans- Local Plans; • Brings resources including people, supplies, equipment, and funding

  46. FRP Signatory Agencies Department of Agriculture Agency for International Development Department of Commerce American National Red Cross Department of Defense Environmental Protection Agency Department of Education Federal Communications Commission Department of Energy Federal Emergency Management Agency Department of Health and Human Services General Services Administration Department of Housing/Urban Development Interstate Commerce Commission Department of Interior Nat’l Aeronautics & Space Admin Department of Justice National Communications System Department of Labor Nuclear Regulatory Commission Department of State Office of Personnel Management Department of Transportation Tennessee Valley Authority Department of Treasury US Postal Service Department of Veterans Affairs Small Business Administration