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Horse Vaccination Update. ANR Update November 18, 2008 Dr. Fernanda Camargo-Stutzman Horse Extension Specialist. Disease Control. Infectious vs. Contagious: Is every infectious disease also contagious?

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horse vaccination update

Horse Vaccination Update

ANR Update

November 18, 2008

Dr. Fernanda Camargo-Stutzman

Horse Extension Specialist

disease control
Disease Control
  • Infectious vs. Contagious: Is every infectious disease also contagious?
  • Infectious disease: caused by a pathogenic microorganism or agent (The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary)
  • Contagious disease: spreads from one infected individual to another
  • “All contagious diseases are also infectious, but not all infectiousdiseases are contagious”
programs to control infectious disease
Programs to Control Infectious Disease:
  • Reduce the exposure to infectious agents in the horse’s environment
  • Enhance resistance (vaccination)
  • Minimize the factors that decrease resistance to disease.
factors that decrease resistance to disease
Factors that Decrease Resistance to Disease:

No turn-out time


Inclement weather


Disruption of established social groups

Stringent exercise program


  • Stress
  • Over-crowding
  • Parasitism
  • Poor nutrition
  • Inadequate sanitation
  • Contaminated water supply
  • Concurrent disease
  • Occurrence of infectious diseases increases with increase in population density of susceptible horses: sales, boarding facilities, breeding farms, fairgrounds, racetracks, etc.
  • Resident herd vs. Itinerant herd: different management
  • Segregation of horses in small groups: age, use, gestation status, etc.
  • Maintain each group as an isolated unit: restrict movement of horses in established groups, especially transient horses
  • Stress reduction
  • Isolation of sick animals
  • Vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent infectious diseases
  • Protection is not immediate
  • Booster doses
aaep and avma
  • Core Vaccination and Risk-Based Vaccination
  • Core: AVMA defines: “those that protect from diseases that are endemic to a region, those with potential public health significance, required by law, virulent/highly infectious, and/or those posing a risk of severe disease.”
  • Risk-Based: varies regionally, from population to population within an area, or between individual horses within a population.
core and risk based vaccination
Core and Risk-Based Vaccination
  • Core: Tetanus, Rabies, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis and West Nile Virus.
  • Risk-Based: Anthrax, Botulism, Equine Herpesvirus (Rhinopneumonitis), Equine Viral Arteritis, Equine Influenza, Potomac Horse Fever, Rotaviral Diarrhea and Strangles.
  • Deadly, horses highly susceptible, bacteria in feces, soil, everywhere.
  • Not contagious
  • Deadly
  • Carriers: skunks, bats, rabid carnivores, foxes, etc
  • Transmitted by rabid animal bite  saliva
  • Furious rabies vs. dumb rabies (hydrophobia)
  • Contagious  ZOONOSIS
eastern and western encephalomyelitis
Eastern and Western Encephalomyelitis
  • Neurological disease: Sleeping sickness
  • Transmitted by mosquitoes and blood-sucking insects (birds and rodents are reservoirs)
  • EEE highest mortality, WEE low mortality
  • Humans can contract it
  • VEE: horse is important factor in human disease
west nile virus
West Nile Virus
  • Comes from a family of viruses which contain some of the some of the most important human pathogens in the world.
  • Transmitted by many mosquito species
  • Affects CNS
  • Humans can contract it
  • 40% mortality
neurological signs
Neurological Signs

risk based
  • Anthrax
  • Botulism
  • Equine Herpesvirus (Rhinopneumonitis)
  • Equine Viral Arteritis
  • Equine Influenza
  • Potomac Horse Fever
  • Rotaviral Diarrhea
  • Strangles
  • Most potent toxin known to man
  • Very deadly
  • Modes of infection: spoiled hay, silage, haylage, anaerobic wound, round-baled hay
  • Flaccid paralysis (flabby)
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Annual vaccine
  • Highly contagious respiratory disease
  • Spreads very quickly
  • High fever, possible secondary bacterial infections (pneumonia)
  • May take up to 6 months for horses to completely recuperate to level of performance
  • Vaccinate performance horses 2-4 times per year
equine herpesvirus rhinopneumonitis
Equine Herpesvirus - Rhinopneumonitis
  • Latency
  • Stress
  • Causes abortion (EHV-1)
    • Vaccinate: 5,7 and 9 months gestation
  • Causes respiratory disease (EHV-4)
    • Vaccinate: every 4-6 months (performance horses)
equine viral arteritis
Equine Viral Arteritis
  • Abortion
  • Vaccinate stallions and teasers 4 weeks prior to breeding season
  • Test before vaccinating
  • Isolate vaccinated horses for at least 28 days
  • Rotavirus: only problematic to foals  vaccinate broodmares
  • Potomac Horse Fever: very low incidence in KY, may be a problem to horses drinking water from stream
  • Strangles: highly contagious, swollen lymph nodes, nasal vaccine  do not use injectable vaccine the same day  abscesses