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Cochineal Red Gold of The Mixtec. Cochineal Production in Oaxaca By Stefanie Tietz. What is cochineal???. www.bluegurus.com/. Cochineal is a small insect…. Which belongs to:. ..or more specifically. Scientific classification:

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cochineal red gold of the mixtec

Cochineal Red Gold of The Mixtec

Cochineal Production in Oaxaca

By

Stefanie Tietz

what is cochineal
What is cochineal???

www.bluegurus.com/

or more specifically
..or more specifically
  • Scientific classification:
  • Domain: EukaryotaKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ArthropodaClass: InsectaOrder: HomopteraSuperfamily: CoccoideaFamily: DactylopiidaeGenus: DactylopiusSpecies: coccusBinomial name: Dactylopiuscoccuscosta, 1835
the females cluster together on the cactus leaf feeding on its juices
The females cluster together on the cactus leaf feeding on its juices

http://www.cochinealdye.com/html/biology.html

the male lives only long enough to fertilize the females many many females
The male lives only long enough to fertilize the females (Many, many females…)

http://www.pestproducts.com/cochineal-bug.htm

lifecycle
Lifecycle
  • After the eggs hatch, the male nymphs produce a white sticky substance which they use to have the wind blow them to another cactus.
  • Males will then develop wings in order to be able to find females.
  • Females crawl to a good spot on the leaf (Usually surrounding their mother)and bite into it where they will stay until laying their eggs after they have been fertilized.
what makes these insects so important
What makes these insects so important?
  • Females and eggs produce a bitter, astringent chemical substance that is a predator deterrent.
  • This substance is called carminic acid or carmine.
  • It is particularly effective against ants.
  • The pyralid moth (Laetiliacoccidivora) eats cochineal and stores carminic acid in its gut to repel predatory ants.
carminic acid is bright red
Carminic acid is bright red…

Photo credit: Stefanie Tietz

cochineal is grown in special farms
Cochineal is grown in special farms…

Photo credit: Stefanie Tietz

the bugs are collected and dried bugs are ground up
The bugs are collected and dried bugs are ground up…

http://hilobrow.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/MCI-Cochineal-prep.jpg

cochineal is best for dyeing natural fibers such as wool and silk
Cochineal is best for dyeing natural fibers such as wool and silk.

http://www.cochinealdye.com/index.html

an example of different hues on right
An example of different hues (on right)

Photo credit: Stefanie Tietz

cochineal color carmine is
Cochineal color (Carmine) is
  • Water- soluble
  • Resists degradation over time
  • Light and heat stable
  • Oxidation-resistant
  • Generally considered to be more stable than most synthetic dyes.
  • Neither toxic nor carcinogenic (but can cause anaphylatic shock in allergic individuals)
cochineal
Cochineal
  • Has been harvested in Mexico since about 1200 BC (In Peru since 1500 BC).
  • The Mixtec people were valued by the Spanish after the conquest for their skill in cochineal production.
  • It was highly prized by the Spaniards and in value considered second to silver.
  • It was used as currency both by indigenous rulers, as well as Spanish conquerors.
the mixtec
The Mixtec
  • Nochiztlan was a major Mixtec center and source for cochineal in pre-Hispanic times. The name means “Place of cactus blood”.
  • Coixtlahuaca: Seat of Mixtec royal power and focus of important manuscripts and maps. (Codices). Mayor trading center for cochineal.
references
References:
  • http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Cochineal/index.htmlhttp://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Cochineal/index.html
  • Rodriguez, L.C., Mendez, M.A. Niemeyer, H.M.( 2001)Direction of dispersion of cochineal within the Americas. Antiquity, March, 2001 retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3284/is_287_75/ai_n28829906/?tag=content;col1
  • http://cool.conservation-us.org/coolaic/sg/bpg/annual/v16/bp16-05.html
  • http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/index.php?one=azt&two=lif&id=480&typ=reg
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