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MACRONUTRIENTS & MICRONUTRIENTS IN PLANTS. Elements required by plants. Mineral nutrients are essential chemical elements required by plants to complete their life cycle and achieve optimal growth and development Elements required by plants: Macronutrients: elements needed in large quantities

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MACRONUTRIENTS & MICRONUTRIENTS IN PLANTS


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    1. MACRONUTRIENTS & MICRONUTRIENTS IN PLANTS

    2. Elements required by plants • Mineral nutrients are essential chemical elements required by plants to complete their life cycle and achieve optimal growth and development • Elements required by plants: • Macronutrients: elements needed in large quantities • Micronutrients: elements needed in smaller quantities Tr.Rez@SB2013

    3. Elements required by plants Tr.Rez@SB2013

    4. Knop’s solution • To determine which elements are required for normal growth • plant seedlings are grown in a complete culture solution, also known as Knop’s Solution • We can investigate whether a plant needs a particular minerals element by eliminating it from Knop’s Solution Tr.Rez@SB2013

    5. Tr.Rez@SB2013

    6. Nutrient deficiency Tr.Rez@SB2013

    7. Tr.Rez@SB2013

    8. PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    9. Tr.Rez@SB2013

    10. The discovery of photosynthesis • Contributions of 3 scientists: • Jan Baptista van Helmont (1580-1644) • Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) • Jan Ingenhousz (1779) Tr.Rez@SB2013

    11. Jan Baptista van Helmont (1580-1644) • placed in a large pot 91 kg of soil • moistened the soil with rain water and planted 2.3 kg willow shoot • covered its rim with a perforated iron plate. • watered with rain water or distilled water • After 5 years, found that it had gained 74.5 kg • Conclusion : increase in weight of the willow arose from the water alone Tr.Rez@SB2013

    12. Joseph Priestley (1733 – 1804) Tr.Rez@SB2013

    13. Jan Ingenhousz • Method • Left some green leaves in a glass jar filled with CO2 • exposed the green leaves in the glass jar to sunlight • he found out : • the presence of O2 in the leaves • only the green portion of the leaf produced O2 • importance of chlorophyll in photosynthesis Tr.Rez@SB2013

    14. SUBSTANCES REQUIRED & PRODUCED IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    15. SUBSTANCES REQUIRED SUBSTANCES PRODUCED Water (H2O) Glucose Photosynthesis takes place in the chlorophyll using energy from sunlight Carbon dioxide (CO2) Oxygen (O2) Tr.Rez@SB2013

    16. The structure of a leaf Tr.Rez@SB2013

    17. Tr.Rez@SB2013

    18. Leaf adaptations for photosynthesis • Features of the plant that are adaptations to optimise photosynthesis • Leaf mosaic • Leaves of a plant grow and space out so that they shade one another as little as possible • Phototropism • A plant detects the direction of sunlight and grows in its direction, making sure that all its leaves get maximum sunlight Tr.Rez@SB2013

    19. Leaf mosaic Tr.Rez@SB2013

    20. Adaptations of plants from different habitats to carry out photosynthesis

    21. Plant floating on the surface of water • Hydrophytes • Leaf tissue full of air space • Stomata only on upper epidermis • Palisade layer has a lot of chloroplast Tr.Rez@SB2013

    22. Plant totally immersed in water • Aquatic plants / hydrophytes • E.g. Hydrilla sp. • Very little or no cuticle forming on outer surface of epidermis • No stomata • Small leaves • Lot of air spaces in their tissue Tr.Rez@SB2013

    23. Plant growing in dry places • Xerophytes • E.g. cactus • Leaves are in the form of needles/thorns • Succulent stems • Have fewer stomata • Waxy & cuticle covers the epidermis • Green stem Tr.Rez@SB2013

    24. Land plants with adequate supply of water • Mesophytes • More stomata located on the lower epidermal layer than upper epidermal layer • Shiny layer of wax covers the epidermis • High chloroplast density in palisade mesophyll layer that faces the sun Tr.Rez@SB2013

    25. MECHANISM OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    26. Tr.Rez@SB2013

    27. Mechanism of photosynthesis • Photosynthesis: • Takes place in place leaves within the chloroplasts • 2 stages process: • Stage 1: the light reaction • Stage 2: the dark reaction Tr.Rez@SB2013

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    29. General equation: Tr.Rez@SB2013

    30. Tr.Rez@SB2013

    31. FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    32. Factors affecting rate of photosynthesis • 3 main factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis are: • Light intensity • CO2 concentration • Temperature • Limiting factor : any factor affecting the rate of metabolic reaction • Light intensity, CO2 concentration & temperature can be a limiting factor depending on which one is short in supply Tr.Rez@SB2013

    33. Effect of light intensity Light intensity is the limiting factor Tr.Rez@SB2013

    34. Effect of CO2 concentration Carbon dioxide concentration is the limiting factor Tr.Rez@SB2013

    35. Carbon dioxide concentration is the limiting factor Tr.Rez@SB2013

    36. Effect of temperature Tr.Rez@SB2013

    37. Tr.Rez@SB2013

    38. Tr.Rez@SB2013