1.1.5 Personal health and well-being Learning objectives To understand the links between exercise, diet, work and rest and how these factors influence your personal health and wellbeing. Explain the requirements of a balanced diet Recall the factors of a balanced diet Explain how each of these factors fits into a balanced, healthy lifestyle
Exercise, diet, work and rest There is an important link between Exercise, Diet, Work and Rest. Each has an important part in ensuring happiness and wellbeing. • Work • Provides • Finance • Motivation • Opportunity Rest Which maintains a balance between the two, giving time for our muscles to repair To take part in If we are doing all the following we need a balanced Diet Which will provide all essential nutrients for health, fitness, strength and wellbeing Exercise Which is the fitness necessary to work and enjoy life If we work and exercise we need
What is a ‘Balanced Diet’? Everyone needs to eat a balanced diet, depending on the physical demands of the sport. The diet of a rower would be totally different from that of a Sumo wrestler!!!
Carbohydrates – Macro nutrients Most important food type for athletes Carbs contain the fuels that provide us with energy to sustain our performance Glucose in the form of Glycogen is broken down from carbs to provide energy.
Foods containing carbohydrates Rice Breads Fruit Biscuits Pasta Breakfast cereals Potatoes Root vegetables
Fats – Macro nutrients We all need some fats in our diet! Fats are also used for energy, but only when stores of carbohydrate run low. Fat provides very slowly released energy – This is important for endurance activities. The longer you work the more fat is used. The fitter you are the more easily your body uses up stores of fat ?
Foods containing fats Butter Cooking oil Margarine Meat Sausages Cakes Cream Cheese
Proteins – Macro Nutrient Proteins are used to generate energy only when the body has exhausted its stores of carbohydrates and fats. Proteins are especially important for sportspeople who need to build up large, powerful muscles. Performers in sports like weightlifting, rugby and sprinting need high protein diets
Proteins Help us grow and repair muscle E.g. Some body builders eat a dozen raw eggs everyday!!
Proteins are also needed by performers who are recovering from injury in order to repair damaged tissue.
Proteins are found in…? Meat and fish Dairy products and eggs Beans Nuts and soya
Fibre Very important for maintaining good health Found in form of plant material that we cannot absorb and is passed through the body. Fibre is required to aid the smooth working of our digestive system.
Vitamins Your body needs vitamins to help it function. Vitamins are needed to: • - resisting infection and disease • - regulate chemical reactions in the body. How it aids the sports person: Contributes to the general health of an athlete.
Vitamins How do we get vitamin D & C? Research and report back to the class
Minerals – Micro Nutrients Needed in small quantities but are vital for the body Found in: Calcium in milk, : Iron in meat How it aids the sports person: Increased efficiency of carrying oxygen to muscles.
Minerals Minerals are needed by the body in small amounts in order to stay healthy. How do we get vitamin D & C? Research and report back to the class
Water The human body is 75% water We need regular intake to replace the water lost through urine, sweating and breathing. When exercising the body loses even more water – risk of dehydration
Water during exercise Symptoms of dehydration: tiredness, lack of concentration and headaches It is essential to keep taking a small amount of fluid at regular intervals during exercises to enable the body to function properly Performers exercising in hot climates may need to drink up to 2 litres of water per hour!
Body Water Loss Symptoms • 1% Few symptoms or signs of any thirst. • 2% Beginning to feel thirsty; loss of endurance capacity and appetite. • 3% Dry mouth; performance impaired. • 4% Increased effort for exercise, impatience, apathy, vague discomfort, loss of appetite. • 5% Difficulty concentrating, increased pulse and breathing.6-7% Impairment of temperature regulation, higher pulse and breathing, flushed skin, sleepiness, tingling, stumbling, headache. • 8-9% Dizziness, laboured breathing, mental confusion, further weakness.
Dietary intake and performance What an athlete eats in the run up to an event can greatly affect performance. Redistribution of blood during exercise Muscles need a continued supply of oxygen, which is provide through the bloodstream. Therefore blood plays a vital role during exercise. When exercising, the distribution of blood around the body changes according to the demands. Blood flow reduces to systems not in use (i.e. Digestive system)
Carbohydrate loading This is traditionally associated to long endurance events such as the marathon. By filling up on carbohydrates performers build up a store of glycogen in the body This ensures their energy levels are maintained throughout the long, gruelling race.
The night before long endurance events athletes have ‘pasta parties’!!! NO! YES! This is because carbs energy is released slowly through the body, unlike simple sugars which give a quick burst of energy followed by a slump!!
Classwork - dehydration • Write 1 sentence to summarise the effects of dehydration on the body. • Increased heart rate (beats per minute) • Increased lactate acid in muscles (increased blood acidity) • Increased body temperature. • Decreased strength
Diet and hydration before, during and after exercise Pre-event: a week before competition athletes should taper their training and will begin to carbohydrate load their body. Day of event: athletes will usually have a larger meal 3 to 4 hours before the competition. They should make sure fluid levels are HIGH.
Diet and hydration before, during and after exercise During the event: Any prolonged exercise reduces water levels in the body. Low water levels will result in a decrease in performance. Regular water intake will prevent dehydration. After the event: An athlete will continue to drink fluids to replace the water and carbohydrate levels that are depleted.