macronutrients micronutrients in plants
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MACRONUTRIENTS & MICRONUTRIENTS IN PLANTS. Elements required by plants. Mineral nutrients are essential chemical elements required by plants to complete their life cycle and achieve optimal growth and development Elements required by plants: Macronutrients: elements needed in large quantities

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elements required by plants
Elements required by plants
  • Mineral nutrients are essential chemical elements required by plants to complete their life cycle and achieve optimal growth and development
  • Elements required by plants:
    • Macronutrients: elements needed in large quantities
    • Micronutrients: elements needed in smaller quantities

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knop s solution
Knop’s solution
  • To determine which elements are required for normal growth
  • plant seedlings are grown in a complete culture solution, also known as Knop’s Solution
  • We can investigate whether a plant needs a particular minerals element by eliminating it from Knop’s Solution

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the discovery of photosynthesis
The discovery of photosynthesis
  • Contributions of 3 scientists:
    • Jan Baptista van Helmont (1580-1644)
    • Joseph Priestley (1733-1804)
    • Jan Ingenhousz (1779)

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jan baptista van helmont 1580 1644
Jan Baptista van Helmont (1580-1644)
  • placed in a large pot 91 kg of soil
  • moistened the soil with rain water and planted 2.3 kg willow shoot
  • covered its rim with a perforated iron plate.
  • watered with rain water or distilled water
  • After 5 years, found that it had gained 74.5 kg
  • Conclusion : increase in weight of the willow arose from the water alone

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jan ingenhousz
Jan Ingenhousz
  • Method
    • Left some green leaves in a glass jar filled with CO2
    • exposed the green leaves in the glass jar to sunlight
    • he found out :
      • the presence of O2 in the leaves
      • only the green portion of the leaf produced O2
      • importance of chlorophyll in photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis takes place in the chlorophyll using energy from sunlight

Carbon dioxide




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leaf adaptations for photosynthesis
Leaf adaptations for photosynthesis
  • Features of the plant that are adaptations to optimise photosynthesis
    • Leaf mosaic
      • Leaves of a plant grow and space out so that they shade one another as little as possible
    • Phototropism
      • A plant detects the direction of sunlight and grows in its direction, making sure that all its leaves get maximum sunlight

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plant floating on the surface of water
Plant floating on the surface of water
  • Hydrophytes
    • Leaf tissue full of air space
    • Stomata only on upper epidermis
    • Palisade layer has a lot of chloroplast

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plant totally immersed in water
Plant totally immersed in water
  • Aquatic plants / hydrophytes
  • E.g. Hydrilla sp.
    • Very little or no cuticle forming on outer surface of epidermis
    • No stomata
    • Small leaves
    • Lot of air spaces in their tissue

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plant growing in dry places
Plant growing in dry places
  • Xerophytes
  • E.g. cactus
    • Leaves are in the form of needles/thorns
    • Succulent stems
    • Have fewer stomata
    • Waxy & cuticle covers the epidermis
    • Green stem

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land plants with adequate supply of water
Land plants with adequate supply of water
  • Mesophytes
    • More stomata located on the lower epidermal layer than upper epidermal layer
    • Shiny layer of wax covers the epidermis
    • High chloroplast density in palisade mesophyll layer that faces the sun

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mechanism of photosynthesis1
Mechanism of photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis:
    • Takes place in place leaves within the chloroplasts
    • 2 stages process:
      • Stage 1: the light reaction
      • Stage 2: the dark reaction

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factors affecting rate of photosynthesis
Factors affecting rate of photosynthesis
  • 3 main factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis are:
    • Light intensity
    • CO2 concentration
    • Temperature
  • Limiting factor : any factor affecting the rate of metabolic reaction
  • Light intensity, CO2 concentration & temperature can be a limiting factor depending on which one is short in supply

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effect of light intensity
Effect of light intensity

Light intensity is the limiting factor

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effect of co 2 concentration
Effect of CO2 concentration

Carbon dioxide concentration is the limiting factor

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