Document-Based Question: • Evaluate the methods and roles of leaders and organizations in the movement for independence and change in the period between 21945 and 1975.
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1955: Bandung Conference • April 18-24 1955: the Asia-Africa Conference was a watershed event in anti-colonial politics and modern international relations. • 29 heads of state mainly from newly independent Asian and African nations, as well as representatives of national liberation movements and civil rights organizations, were present at this gathering. • Aka the Bandung Conference, leaders included Indonesia's Sukarno, India's Nehru, and Zhou Enlai, from People's Republic of China (PRC). • Participants advocated self-determination and autonomous government for peoples in the Asian-African region, and sought for the first time to build a collective voice that would command respect amongst the former colonial powers and within the United Nations organization. • Participants debated issue of alignment w/either of Cold War blocs. • Although states such as the PRC, Turkey, Pakistan, and the Philippines were aligned, many in attendance took up Nehru's call to move beyond defense arrangements that he viewed as only furthering the interests of the two superpowers.
1955: Bandung Conference • Debate: Whether Soviet Policies in E. Europe and Central Asia should be censured along with Western colonialism. • Consensus reached in which "colonialism in all of its manifestations" was condemned, censuring the Soviet Union, as well as the West. • China played an important role in the conference and strengthened its relations with other Asian nations. • Chinese premier Zhou Enlai showed moderate attitude that quieted fears of anticommunists vis-a-vis China's intentions. • Zhou Enlai signed declaration stating that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation, rather than to China – a sensitive issue for his Indonesian hosts and other participating countries.
Outcome: A 10-point "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation," incorporating the principles of the UN Charter was adopted unanimously: • Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the charter of the United Nations • Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations • Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations large and small • Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country • Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself, singly or collectively, in conformity with the charter of the United Nations • (a) Abstention from the use of arrangements of collective defence to serve any particular interests of the big powers(b) Abstention by any country from exerting pressures on other countries • Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country • Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, such as negotiation, conciliation, arbitration or judicial settlement as well as other peaceful means of the parties own choice, in conformity with the charter of the United Nations • Promotion of mutual interests and cooperation • Respect for justice and international obligations.
Final text of the Conference underscored the need for developing countries to loosen their economic dependence on leading industrialized nations by providing technical assistance to one another through the exchange of experts and technical assistance for developmental projects, as well as the exchange of technological know-how and the establishment of regional training and research institutes.
Members of the Non-Aligned Movement, 2007 (light blue have observer status)
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India • 1885 saw the establishment of the Indian National Congress whose goal was to increase rights for Indians under colonial rule. • 1906 witnessed the creation of the Muslim League to protect Muslim adherents rights
The Amritsar Massacre - 1919 • 319 Indians (Hindu and Muslim) were killed during a peaceful demonstration in a park by General Dyer. • The massacre was unprovoked • In the immediate aftermath millions joined the “self rule” (swaraj) campaign.
Gandhi began call for Indian unity which was to transcend religious differences. • Most famous gesture was the “March to the Sea” where he collected salt which was prohibited by British law. • Was a British educated lawyer who dressed as a commoner, fasted and attracted large crowds.
Mohandas Gandhi • Movement’s spokesman was Gandhi who organized huge protests. • He proclaimed a program of Passive Resistance or civil disobedience • Consisted of demonstrations and work stoppages and boycotts • This non-violence program was quite successful • Dr. King in America copied this strategy of civil disobedience in the US civil rights movement.
The Muslim League demanded creation of a Muslim state to be called Pakistan • After WWII Britain granted Indian independence • Immediately radical Hindus and Muslims began massive killings of each other.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah • Main goal was to create a separate Muslim state. • When Britain decided to leave India in 1947, India was partitioned: India in the south Pakistan in the northwest East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in the east
Millions now moved to the area of their choice, or were forced to flee to avoid religious persecution • 500,000 people were killed • Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu who disagreed with his political aspirations. • The two nations are still fighting. • Note: Both nations are now nuclear powers
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After the war France was determined to retain her colonies of Algeria and Vietnam. • French determination set off revolts in both areas. • The 1954 revolt in Algeria was marked by bloody reprisals on both sides. • Algeria gained independence in 1962 but bitterness caused many pro-French sympathizers to flee to France---thus developing a Islamic community in France with lingering problems today. • Pan African movements began in the late 50s and were started by Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta--but African movements primarily were concerned with individual colonies.
African movements began north of the Sahara where nations had long standing Islamic ties.
Nationalist Movements in Africa and the Middle East Kenya South Africa Nigeria
Egyptian Independence • Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew the king and established the Arab Republic of Egypt (Gumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah). • Nationalized industries. • Nationalized the Suez Canal • Served as model for others in Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa • Most nations had few trained professionals (doctors, diplomats, businessmen, scientists). • They had no trained people to run or rule a new nation • In most colonies there were multiple languages since colonies were made along imperialist lines not African traditions. • Most colonies had differing histories, customs and loyalties.
Rwanda • This area faced: • Human rights violations • Tribal division between two tribes, the • Tutsi (15% of pop.) and • Hutu (85% of pop.) • Ethnic upheaval, even to the point of attempted genocide (Summer 1994)
1962: Independence • Next: Hutu revolted against Tutsi leadership • More than 10,000 people were murdered. • Fighting continued up to the 1970s when a military coup by Juvenal Habyarimana created a one party republic. • When Habyarimana died in plane crash in 1994 civil war broke out again.
3 months of fighting resulted in genocide which left 800,000 Tutsi dead. • The following year 2,000,000 Tutsi fled to nearby Zaire • This is largest incident of genocide in recent history resulting in lost of 1/3 of entire national population.