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Fire Protection Systems

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  1. Fire Protection Systems Intermediate SFFMA Objectives: 13-02.01 – 13-02.10 6Hrs received

  2. SFFMA Objectives • 13-02.01 Trainee shall identify the main drain valve on the system. • 13-02.02 Trainee shall open and close a main drain valve on the system. • 13-02.03 Trainee shall identify the main control valve on the system. • 13-02.04 Trainee shall operate a main control valve on the system from open to closed and back to open. • 13-02.05 Trainee shall define the value of automatic sprinklers in providing safety to the occupants in a structure. • 13-02.06 Trainee shall identify and define the dangers of premature closure of sprinkler main control valve, and of usinghydrants to supply hose streams when the same water system is supplying the automatic sprinkler system. • 13-02.07 Trainee shall identify the difference between an automatic sprinkler system that provides complete coverageand a partial sprinkler system. • 13-02.08 Trainee shall identify at least three sources of water for supply to an automatic sprinkler system. • 13-02.09 Trainee shall identify the following: • A. wet sprinkler system C. deluge sprinkler system • B. dry sprinkler system D. residential sprinkler system • 13-02.10 Trainee shall demonstrate removing one head from a sprinkler system and replacing it with a head of the sametype.

  3. Principle Parts of Automatic Sprinkler System • Water supply • Sprinkler valve • Alarm • Manual valve • System drain (Continued) Firefighter II

  4. Principle Parts of Automatic Sprinkler System (Continued) Firefighter II

  5. Principle Parts of Automatic Sprinkler System • Test connection • Sprinkler head • Riser • Feed main • Cross mains Firefighter II

  6. Sprinklers • Discharge water after release of cap or plug activated by some heat-responsive element such as fusible link (Continued) Firefighter II

  7. Sprinklers • Identified by temperature at which designed to operate, either by color-coding, using different colored liquid, stamping temperature on sprinkler (Continued) Firefighter II

  8. Sprinklers • Fusible link • Frangible bulb (Continued) Firefighter II

  9. Sprinklers • Chemical pellet Firefighter II

  10. Sprinkler Position • Pendant • Upright (Continued) Firefighter II

  11. Sprinkler Position • Sidewall • Special-purpose Firefighter II

  12. Sprinkler Storage • Storage cabinet to house spare sprinklers, a sprinkler wrench usually installed near sprinkler rise, main shut-off valve • Cabinets hold a minimum of six sprinklers and sprinkler wrench in accordance with NFPA® 13 and 13D (Continued) Firefighter II

  13. Sprinkler Storage • In many jurisdictions, job of changing sprinklers must be performed by representatives of building’s occupants qualified to perform work on sprinkler systems (Continued) Firefighter II

  14. Sprinkler Storage • In other jurisdictions, firefighters allowed to replace fused/damaged sprinklers to restore system to service sooner Firefighter II

  15. Water Supply • Minimum water supply has to deliver required volume of water to highest sprinkler in building at residual pressure of 15 psi (105 kPa) (Continued) Firefighter II

  16. Water Supply • Minimum flow depends on hazard to be protected, occupancy, building contents • In most cases, water supply for sprinkler systems designed to supply only fraction of sprinklers actually installed on system (Continued) Firefighter II

  17. Water Supply • If large fire occurs/pipe breaks, sprinkler system will need outside source of water and pressure (Continued) Firefighter II

  18. Water Supply • Sprinkler FDCs should be supplied with water from pumpers that have capacity of at least 1,000 gpm (4 000 L/min) or greater; minimum of two 2½-inch (65 mm) or larger hoses should be attached to the FDC (Continued) Firefighter II

  19. Water Supply • After water flows through FDC into system, passes through check valve • Proper direction of water flow through check valve usually indicated by arrow on valve or appearance of valve casing (Continued) Firefighter II

  20. Water Supply (Continued) Firefighter II

  21. Water Supply • Departmental preincident plans may identify the pressure at which a sprinkler system should be supported Firefighter II

  22. Effects of Sprinkler Systems on Life Safety • Safety of building occupants enhanced by presence of sprinkler system because it discharges water directly onto fire while still relatively small (Continued) Firefighter I

  23. Effects of Sprinkler Systems on Life Safety • Because fire extinguished/controlled in early growth stage, combustion products limited • Sprinklers also effective in other situations • There are times when sprinklers alone are not as effective Firefighter I

  24. Discussion • What are some of the dangers of prematurely closing a sprinkler main at control point and using supply hose lines when the same water system is supplying the automatic sprinkler system?

  25. Water Supply • Departmental preincident plans may identify the pressure at which a sprinkler system should be supported • What are three sources of water for supply of an automatic sprinkler system? Firefighter II

  26. Wet-Pipe Systems • Used in locations where temperatures below 40°F (4°C) not expected • Simplest type of automatic fire sprinkler system (Continued) Firefighter II

  27. Wet-Pipe Systems • Generally require little maintenance • Contain water under pressure at all times • Connected to public/private water supply so fused sprinkler immediately discharges water spray, actuates alarm (Continued) Firefighter II

  28. Wet-Pipe Systems • Usually equipped with alarm check valve installed in main riser adjacent to where feed main enters building • Newer versions may have a backflow prevention check valve and electronic flow alarm. (Continued) Firefighter II

  29. Wet-Pipe Systems • May be equipped with retarding device as part of alarm check valve Firefighter II

  30. Dry-Pipe Systems • Used in locations where piping may be subjected to temperatures below 40°F (4°C) (Continued) Firefighter II

  31. Dry-Pipe Systems • Have pitched (sloped) pipes to help drain water in system back toward main drain • Replace water in sprinkler piping with air under pressure (Continued) Firefighter II

  32. Dry-Pipe Systems • Designed so small amount of air pressure above dry-pipe valve will hold back much greater water pressure on water supply side of dry-pipe valve • Equipped with electric or hydraulic alarm-signaling equipment (Continued) Firefighter II

  33. Dry-Pipe Systems • Larger systems may have several-minute delay while air expelled from system Firefighter II

  34. Preaction Systems • Dry systems that employ deluge-type valve, fire detection device, closed sprinklers • Used when especially important to prevent water damage, even if pipes broken (Continued) Firefighter II

  35. Preaction Systems • Will not discharge water into sprinkler piping except in response to smoke- or heat-detection system actuation • Sound alarm to give warning before opening of sprinklers Firefighter II

  36. Deluge Systems • Similar to dry-pipe system in no water in distribution piping before system activation • Differ from dry-pipe systems in sprinklers have no fusible links, do not function as fire detection devices (Continued) Firefighter II

  37. Deluge Systems • Designed to quickly supply large volume of water to protected area • Sometimes used to discharge foam/other extinguishing agents in occupancies containing flammable liquids, other volatile fuels Firefighter II

  38. Residential Systems • Installed in one- and two-family dwellings • Designed to give occupants of dwelling chance to escape, prevent total involvement in room of origin (Continued) Firefighter II

  39. Residential Systems • Employ quick-response sprinklers • Use several types of piping systems • Must have pressure gauge, flow detector, means for draining and testing system (Continued) Firefighter II

  40. Residential Systems • Can be either connected directly to public water supply or to dwelling’s domestic water system (Continued) Firefighter II

  41. Residential Systems • Require control valve to turn off water to sprinkler system and to domestic water system if connected; if sprinkler system supplied separately from domestic water system, sprinkler control valve must be supervised in open position (Continued) Firefighter II

  42. Residential Systems • Operate in same manner as other wet-pipe/dry-pipe systems • May be equipped with fire department connection (FDC); FDC may be 1½-inch (38 mm) connection Firefighter II

  43. Practical Exercise • Firefighter shall: • Demonstrate removing one sprinkler head from the system and replacing it with a head of the same type