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Fire Protection. Presented by Jason Bible, MBA, MSM, ARM, CHMM, CSP Program Manager, Occupational Safety and Fire Prevention. Today’s Topics….. . National Fire Protection Association International Building Code by ICC. February 24, 2003 462 in attendance 100 lost their lives

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fire protection

Fire Protection

Presented by

Jason Bible, MBA, MSM, ARM, CHMM, CSPProgram Manager, Occupational Safety and Fire Prevention

today s topics
Today’s Topics…..

National Fire Protection Association

International Building Code by ICC


February 24, 2003

462 in attendance

100 lost their lives

The fire was caused by pyrotechnics

Great White was performing

The Station Fire, Rhode Island, 2003


notable fires
Notable Fires

Boston 1942, Cocoanut Grove Night Club

  • 492 people dead

In 1946….

LaSalle Hotel in Chicago

  • 61 dead

Winecoff Hotel in Atlanta

  • 119 dead
  • A Christmas tree-
  • Living room fire-
  • Iroquois fire Chicago
  • MGM Hotel, Part 2
what is in code
What is in Code
  • Chapter 1-3 (key information, definitions)
  • Chapters 4-6 (occupancy definition)
  • Chapters 7-10 (means of egress, fire protection, interior finish )
  • Chapters 11- 42 (assembly, educational, business)
  • Chapter 43 Building Rehabilitation
  • Annex and Index
means of egress
Means of Egress.
  • Important numbers to remember 7’6” or 6’8” with ceiling projections, 32” door opening,
  • Kept egress clear at all times.
  • Exits
  • Stairs
fire protection1
Fire Protection
  • Fire barriers
  • Smoke barriers
  • Rated fire doors
  • Automatic Sprinklers NFPA 13, 13D, 13R
occupancy definitions
Occupancy Definitions
  • See chapter 6 for the definition of the all the different occupancies.
  • Table separation of occupancies.
types of occupancies
Types of Occupancies
  • Assembly- theaters, auditoriums, stadiums
  • Educational- high schools, classroom(varies)
  • Health Care- nursing homes, hospitals
  • Business, Storage, Mercantile,

An occupancy used for educational purposes through the twelfth grade by six or more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 12 hours per week.

  • An occupancy used for the transaction of business other than mercantile.
  • An occupancy used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products, or vehicles.

An occupancy used for the display and sale of merchandise.


  • The purpose of the Life Safety Code is to establish minimum requirements that will provide a reasonable degree of safety from fire and similar emergencies in buildings and structures.
  • To apply the Code effectively, one must understand the legal authority of the Code in various jurisdictions; be familiar with the layout and content of the Code;
  • understand how to navigate through the Code; and have a thorough understanding of how proper application of the Code can minimize the effects of a devastating fire or other emergency.
what is the ibc
What is the IBC
  • First published in 2000 by international Code Council
  • Complies regulation from BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators International), Uniform Building Code-ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials), and SBCCI (Southern Building Code Congress International)
  • Updated every 3 years
  • 35 chapters, 10 appendixes, and an Index
occupancy types
Occupancy Types
  • Chapter 3
  • A,B,E,F,H,I, M,R,S, U
  • Some occupancies have numbers attached
    • A-3: assemblies for worship, recreation

The number reflects the degree for which the area is being used.


2006 IBC


  • 19 – CONCRETE
  • 20 – ALUMINUM
  • 21 – MASONRY
  • 22 – STEEL
  • 23 – WOOD
chapters 1 10
Chapters 1- 10
  • Set up like NFPA 101
    • Means of egress, fire protection, interior finish, rated construction
    • Chapters are more in depth
  • NFPA 101 and IBC
      • There is no national or worldwide building code.
      • Both codes reference one another
      • Federal Government requires NFPA for hospitals participation in Medicare and Medicaid programs
      • State agency along with municipalities may use IBC but want to use NFPA for egress.
      • IBC geared toward construction and life safety
      • NFPA 101 is more for life safety in different occupancies
applicability of nfpa 45
Applicability of NFPA 45

NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure A.1.3

a laboratory
A Laboratory?


A workplace where chemicals are used or synthesized on a non-production basis.

Laboratory Work Area

A room or space for testing, analysis, research, instruction, or similar activities that involve the use of chemicals.

Laboratory Unit

An enclosed space used for experiments or tests. May include one or more laboratory work areas.

Laboratory Building

A structure consisting wholly or principally of one or more laboratory units.

laboratory units
Laboratory Units

NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(a)

laboratory units1
Laboratory Units

NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(b)

NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(c)

laboratory units2
Laboratory Units

NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(d)

NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(e)

objective of nfpa 45
Objective of NFPA 45
  • Limit injury to:
    • Occupants at the point of fire origin
    • Emergency response personnel
  • Limit property loss to a single laboratory unit
laboratory unit fire hazard classification
Laboratory Unit Fire Hazard Classification

Class A Unit = High Fire Hazard

Class B Unit = Moderate Fire Hazard

Class C Unit = Low Fire Hazard

Class D Unit = Minimal Fire Hazard

laboratory unit classification
Laboratory Unit Classification
  • Based on the quantity of:
    • Flammable liquids
    • Combustible liquids
    • Flammable gases
  • Includes quantities in storage and use
laboratory unit classification1
Laboratory Unit Classification
  • Liquefied flammable gases = Class I flammable liquids
  • How to classify hazardous materials?
  • CD ROM database:
    • Hazardous Materials Expert Assistant
  • Ask users to inventory existing materials
  • Look at worst-case user – types and quantity
laboratory unit classification2
Laboratory Unit Classification

Includes quantities in storage cabinets or safety cans

laboratory unit classification4
Laboratory Unit Classification
  • No limit on number of lab units per floor
  • No reduction of allowable quantities based on vertical location
  • Supporting construction must carry corresponding fire rating
  • Difficult to do Class A/B lab units in multi-story Type IIB building!
fire protection2
Fire Protection
  • Automatic sprinkler system required in all new labs
  • Sprinkler Density:
    • Ordinary Hazard Group 2 – A/B lab units
    • Ordinary Hazard Group 1 – C/D lab units
  • Portable Fire Extinguishers
    • Class A Units = Extra (high) Hazard
    • Class B, C, D Units = Ordinary (moderate) Hazard
  • Standpipes
    • Lab buildings 2 or more stories above or below grade
fire protection3
Fire Protection
  • Fire Alarm System
    • Class A and B Units – manual system required
    • Must alert local emergency responders or public fire department
  • Fire Prevention Procedures
    • Chemical handling and storage
    • Hot work permits
    • Portable electric cords
    • Smoking areas
fire protection4
Fire Protection
  • Laboratory Emergency Plans
    • Alarm activation
    • Evacuation and building re-entry
    • Equipment shut down
    • Fire fighting operations
    • Non-fire hazards that threaten emergency operations
explosion hazards
Explosion Hazards
  • Storage or formation of materials with an instability hazard rating of 4
  • Highly exothermic reactions
    • Polymerization, oxidations, hydrogenation, etc.
  • High pressure reactions
  • Explosion hazards as determined by a qualified person
explosion protection
Explosion Protection
  • Limit amounts of flammable or reactive chemicals
  • Fire detection interlocked with deluge sprinklers
  • Local fume hood suppression
  • Explosion suppression
  • Explosion resistant construction
  • Explosion venting
laboratory ventilation
Laboratory Ventilation
  • Dedicated exhaust required for each lab unit – to exterior, or rated shaft, or to mechanical penthouse
  • Fire dampers not permitted in lab exhaust duct systems
    • Potential alternatives:
      • Enclose exhaust for 10 feet either side of rated penetration
      • Use sub-ducts per NFPA 45: A.
        • Dedicated exhaust duct risers
        • 22-inch sub-ducts with continuous upward air movement
laboratory ventilation1
Laboratory Ventilation
  • Negative pressure vs. corridors and non-lab area
  • Ducts
    • Non-combustible materials
    • Combustible material with Flame Spread ≤ 25
  • Fans
    • Conveying corrosive, flammable or combustible vapors
      • Flame Spread ≤ 25
      • Non-ferrous or spark-resistant
laboratory ventilation2
Laboratory Ventilation

Hood interiors

Flame Spread ≤ 25 by NFPA 255

Sprinklered for special cases

Flame spread > 25

Hazard analysis

Airflow measuring device at each hood

gas storage and use
Gas Storage and Use
  • Ventilated hood required for lecture bottles:
    • Health hazard 3 or 4
    • Health hazard 2 with no physiological warning properties
    • Pyrophoric gases
  • Gas cabinet and NFPA 55 compliance required for cylinders:
    • Health hazard 3 or 4
    • Health hazard 2 with no warning properties
  • Sprinklered gas cabinet required for pyrophoric gas cylinders
gas storage and use1
Gas Storage and Use

Gas quantity limits for areas < 500ft2:

Gas quantity limits for areas >500ft2:

Flammable – 0.012 ft3 per ft2

Oxidizing – 0.012 ft3 per ft2

Liquefied flammable – 0.0018 ft3 per ft2

Health hazard 3 or 4 – 0.0006 ft3 per ft2

  • Flammable – 6.0 ft3
  • Oxidizing – 6.0 ft3
  • Liquefied flammable – 1.2 ft3
  • Health hazard 3 or 4 – 0.3 ft3
gas storage and use2
Gas Storage and Use

Cylinders not “in use” shall not be stored in a laboratory unit.

Number of lecture bottles – 25 maximum

Outdoor storage

No toxic or flammable gas cylinders:

Within 6 feet of windows, doors, other openings

Within 30 feet of ventilation intakes

  • NFPA 45
      • Laboratory safety
      • Fire hazard classification
      • Fire protection
      • Gas and chemical storage
fire extinguishers
Fire Extinguishers

Fire Extinguisher Training Requirements.

29 CFR 1910.157(g)

Where the employer has provided portable fire extinguishers for employee use in the workplace, the employer shall also provide an educational program to familiarize employees with:

  • the general principles of fire extinguisher use and
  • the hazards involved with incipient stage fire fighting
  • upon initial employment and
  • at least annually thereafter.

Additional references: AR 420-90, TB 5-4200-200-10, NFPA 10

fire extinguishers1
Fire Extinguishers
  • Class A - Combustible material
  • Class B - Flammable liquid
  • Class C - Electrical
  • Class D - Combustible metals (not as well known)
  • Class K- Kitchen
fire extinguishers2
Fire Extinguishers
  • Extinguisher types
  • The fire equipment manufacturers refer to three basic types of hand portable fire extinguishers:
  • 1. Stored pressure
  • 2. Cartridge operated
  • 3. Sealed pressure
fire extinguishers3
Fire Extinguishers
  • The difference lies mainly in the sealing method and the means by which the container is pressurized
fire extinguishers4
Fire Extinguishers
  • Classified as either stored pressure or cartridge operated, they are additionally classified by Underwriters Laboratory (UL) as:
  • ABC - (Ammonium Phosphate).
  • BC - (Sodium Bicarbonate; Purple K). or
  • D - (Super D or Sodium Chloride), Copper, or G-Plus (Graphite).
fire extinguishers5
Fire Extinguishers
  • Stored pressure

In stored pressure models the expellant gas and extinguishing agent are stored in a single chamber and discharge is directly controlled by the valve

fire extinguishers6
Fire Extinguishers
  • Stored pressure

These units have the advantage of being easily inspected since most are equipped with a pressure gauge indicating that the unit is ready for use.

fire extinguishers7
Fire Extinguishers
  • Stored pressure

Once used this unit requires special recharging equipment and is normally returned to the fire department for recharge

fire extinguishers8
Fire Extinguishers
  • Cartridge operated

With cartridge operated fire extinguishers, the expellant gas is stored in a separate cartridge located within or adjacent to the shell containing the extinguishing agent

fire extinguishers9
Fire Extinguishers

Sealed pressure

Sealed pressure fire

extinguishers are much the

same as stored pressure units

and are often referred to as

disposable-non refillable


fire extinguishers10
Fire Extinguishers

Sealed pressure - cont.

The expellant gas and

extinguishing agent are both

stored in a single chamber,

but differ from stored

pressure units in that sealing

is accomplished by means of

a frangible metal disc as

opposed to a valve

fire extinguishers11
Fire Extinguishers

Wheeled Units

Wheeled units are also

considered portable

extinguishers and are

nitrogen cylinder operated

dry chemical units. They are

available in sizes ranging

from 75 pounds to 350

pounds. They can be used on

Class A, B and C fires

depending on the agent used.

fire extinguishers12
Fire Extinguishers

Portable fire extinguishers must be visually inspected monthly. The inspection should assure that:

1. Fire extinguishers are in their assigned place;

2. Fire extinguishers are not blocked or hidden;

3. Fire extinguishers are mounted in accordance with NFPA Standard No. 10 (Portable Fire Extinguisher);

4. Pressure gauges show adequate pressure (CO2 extinguisher must be weighted to determine if leakage has occurred);

5. Pin and seals are in place;

6. Fire extinguishers show no visual sign of damage or abuse;

7. Nozzles are free of blockage.

fire extinguishers13
Fire Extinguishers

Extinguisher Placement (Travel Distance)

The following chart contains OSHA requirements for classes of fires and

travel distance to an extinguisher.

Some local requirements may be stricter, so you should always check with your local fire marshal / fire prevention office.

  • Fire Class Travel Distance
  • Class A *75 ft. (22.9m) or less
  • Class B 50 ft. (15.2m)
  • Class C Based on appropriate A or B Hazard Class.
  • Class D 75 ft
fire extinguishers pass method
Fire Extinguishers: Pass Method

“P” for PULL

“A” for AIM


“S” for SWEEP

fire extinguishers14
Fire Extinguishers


The average hand portable extinguisher will only operate for 30 seconds ----- There is NO TIME to learn during an actual emergency.

fire extinguishers15

Fire Extinguishers


Evacuate the building

Call the fire department

Make sure the fire is small

Make sure you have a clear way out

  • NFPA10
      • PASS method
      • Fire classifications
      • Types of fire extinguishers