Fire Protection Presented by Jason Bible, MBA, MSM, ARM, CHMM, CSPProgram Manager, Occupational Safety and Fire Prevention
Today’s Topics….. National Fire Protection Association International Building Code by ICC
February 24, 2003 462 in attendance 100 lost their lives The fire was caused by pyrotechnics Great White was performing The Station Fire, Rhode Island, 2003 Video: http://youtu.be/SIetpe_KAJU
Notable Fires Boston 1942, Cocoanut Grove Night Club • 492 people dead In 1946…. LaSalle Hotel in Chicago • 61 dead Winecoff Hotel in Atlanta • 119 dead http://youtu.be/ujWXIrhyeVw?t=17s • A Christmas tree- http://youtu.be/hMtjGfr0tYs • Living room fire- http://youtu.be/QqMVm72FMRk?t=1m28s • Iroquois fire Chicago http://youtu.be/uD0L2ZjD3Cw • MGM Hotel http://youtu.be/0vofS-u_gKE?t=6m, Part 2 http://youtu.be/EraeoJJMH0I
What is in Code • Chapter 1-3 (key information, definitions) • Chapters 4-6 (occupancy definition) • Chapters 7-10 (means of egress, fire protection, interior finish ) • Chapters 11- 42 (assembly, educational, business) • Chapter 43 Building Rehabilitation • Annex and Index
Means of Egress. • Important numbers to remember 7’6” or 6’8” with ceiling projections, 32” door opening, • Kept egress clear at all times. • Exits • Stairs
Fire Protection • Fire barriers • Smoke barriers • Rated fire doors • Automatic Sprinklers NFPA 13, 13D, 13R
Occupancy Definitions • See chapter 6 for the definition of the all the different occupancies. • Table 126.96.36.199.1(a/b)- separation of occupancies.
Types of Occupancies • Assembly- theaters, auditoriums, stadiums • Educational- high schools, classroom(varies) • Health Care- nursing homes, hospitals • Business, Storage, Mercantile,
Educational An occupancy used for educational purposes through the twelfth grade by six or more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 12 hours per week.
Business • An occupancy used for the transaction of business other than mercantile.
Storage • An occupancy used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products, or vehicles.
Mercantile An occupancy used for the display and sale of merchandise. THE MALL!
Highlights • The purpose of the Life Safety Code is to establish minimum requirements that will provide a reasonable degree of safety from fire and similar emergencies in buildings and structures. • To apply the Code effectively, one must understand the legal authority of the Code in various jurisdictions; be familiar with the layout and content of the Code; • understand how to navigate through the Code; and have a thorough understanding of how proper application of the Code can minimize the effects of a devastating fire or other emergency.
What is the IBC • First published in 2000 by international Code Council • Complies regulation from BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators International), Uniform Building Code-ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials), and SBCCI (Southern Building Code Congress International) • Updated every 3 years • 35 chapters, 10 appendixes, and an Index
Occupancy Types • Chapter 3 • A,B,E,F,H,I, M,R,S, U • Some occupancies have numbers attached • A-3: assemblies for worship, recreation The number reflects the degree for which the area is being used.
2006 IBC “CORE” CHAPTERS • 16 – STRUCTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS • 17 – STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS • 18 – SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS • 19 – CONCRETE • 20 – ALUMINUM • 21 – MASONRY • 22 – STEEL • 23 – WOOD • 24 – GLASS AND GLAZING • 25 – GYPSUM BOARD LATH AND PLASTER
Chapters 1- 10 • Set up like NFPA 101 • Means of egress, fire protection, interior finish, rated construction • Chapters are more in depth
SUMMARY • NFPA 101 and IBC • There is no national or worldwide building code. • Both codes reference one another • Federal Government requires NFPA for hospitals participation in Medicare and Medicaid programs • State agency along with municipalities may use IBC but want to use NFPA for egress. • IBC geared toward construction and life safety • NFPA 101 is more for life safety in different occupancies
Applicability of NFPA 45 NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure A.1.3
A Laboratory? Laboratory A workplace where chemicals are used or synthesized on a non-production basis. Laboratory Work Area A room or space for testing, analysis, research, instruction, or similar activities that involve the use of chemicals. Laboratory Unit An enclosed space used for experiments or tests. May include one or more laboratory work areas. Laboratory Building A structure consisting wholly or principally of one or more laboratory units.
Laboratory Units NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(a)
Laboratory Units NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(b) NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(c)
Laboratory Units NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(d) NFPA 45-2004 edition, Figure D.2.4(e)
Objective of NFPA 45 • Limit injury to: • Occupants at the point of fire origin • Emergency response personnel • Limit property loss to a single laboratory unit
Laboratory Unit Fire Hazard Classification Class A Unit = High Fire Hazard Class B Unit = Moderate Fire Hazard Class C Unit = Low Fire Hazard Class D Unit = Minimal Fire Hazard
Laboratory Unit Classification • Based on the quantity of: • Flammable liquids • Combustible liquids • Flammable gases • Includes quantities in storage and use
Laboratory Unit Classification • Liquefied flammable gases = Class I flammable liquids • How to classify hazardous materials? • CD ROM database: • Hazardous Materials Expert Assistant • www.iccsafe.org • Ask users to inventory existing materials • Look at worst-case user – types and quantity
Laboratory Unit Classification Includes quantities in storage cabinets or safety cans
Laboratory Unit Classification • No limit on number of lab units per floor • No reduction of allowable quantities based on vertical location • Supporting construction must carry corresponding fire rating • Difficult to do Class A/B lab units in multi-story Type IIB building!
Fire Protection • Automatic sprinkler system required in all new labs • Sprinkler Density: • Ordinary Hazard Group 2 – A/B lab units • Ordinary Hazard Group 1 – C/D lab units • Portable Fire Extinguishers • Class A Units = Extra (high) Hazard • Class B, C, D Units = Ordinary (moderate) Hazard • Standpipes • Lab buildings 2 or more stories above or below grade
Fire Protection • Fire Alarm System • Class A and B Units – manual system required • Must alert local emergency responders or public fire department • Fire Prevention Procedures • Chemical handling and storage • Hot work permits • Portable electric cords • Smoking areas
Fire Protection • Laboratory Emergency Plans • Alarm activation • Evacuation and building re-entry • Equipment shut down • Fire fighting operations • Non-fire hazards that threaten emergency operations
Explosion Hazards • Storage or formation of materials with an instability hazard rating of 4 • Highly exothermic reactions • Polymerization, oxidations, hydrogenation, etc. • High pressure reactions • Explosion hazards as determined by a qualified person
Explosion Protection • Limit amounts of flammable or reactive chemicals • Fire detection interlocked with deluge sprinklers • Local fume hood suppression • Explosion suppression • Explosion resistant construction • Explosion venting
Laboratory Ventilation • Dedicated exhaust required for each lab unit – to exterior, or rated shaft, or to mechanical penthouse • Fire dampers not permitted in lab exhaust duct systems • Potential alternatives: • Enclose exhaust for 10 feet either side of rated penetration • Use sub-ducts per NFPA 45: A.188.8.131.52 • Dedicated exhaust duct risers • 22-inch sub-ducts with continuous upward air movement
Laboratory Ventilation • Negative pressure vs. corridors and non-lab area • Ducts • Non-combustible materials • Combustible material with Flame Spread ≤ 25 • Fans • Conveying corrosive, flammable or combustible vapors • Flame Spread ≤ 25 • Non-ferrous or spark-resistant
Laboratory Ventilation Hood interiors Flame Spread ≤ 25 by NFPA 255 Sprinklered for special cases Flame spread > 25 Hazard analysis Airflow measuring device at each hood
Gas Storage and Use • Ventilated hood required for lecture bottles: • Health hazard 3 or 4 • Health hazard 2 with no physiological warning properties • Pyrophoric gases • Gas cabinet and NFPA 55 compliance required for cylinders: • Health hazard 3 or 4 • Health hazard 2 with no warning properties • Sprinklered gas cabinet required for pyrophoric gas cylinders
Gas Storage and Use Gas quantity limits for areas < 500ft2: Gas quantity limits for areas >500ft2: Flammable – 0.012 ft3 per ft2 Oxidizing – 0.012 ft3 per ft2 Liquefied flammable – 0.0018 ft3 per ft2 Health hazard 3 or 4 – 0.0006 ft3 per ft2 • Flammable – 6.0 ft3 • Oxidizing – 6.0 ft3 • Liquefied flammable – 1.2 ft3 • Health hazard 3 or 4 – 0.3 ft3
Gas Storage and Use Cylinders not “in use” shall not be stored in a laboratory unit. Number of lecture bottles – 25 maximum Outdoor storage No toxic or flammable gas cylinders: Within 6 feet of windows, doors, other openings Within 30 feet of ventilation intakes
Summary • NFPA 45 • Laboratory safety • Fire hazard classification • Fire protection • Gas and chemical storage
Fire Extinguishers Fire Extinguisher Training Requirements. 29 CFR 1910.157(g) Where the employer has provided portable fire extinguishers for employee use in the workplace, the employer shall also provide an educational program to familiarize employees with: • the general principles of fire extinguisher use and • the hazards involved with incipient stage fire fighting • upon initial employment and • at least annually thereafter. Additional references: AR 420-90, TB 5-4200-200-10, NFPA 10