other gods and goddesses you need to know plus a couple of other mythological creatures l.
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Other Gods and Goddesses You Need to Know (plus a couple of other mythological creatures). Hera. Queen of the Olympian gods Goddess of marriage and birth Married to Zeus…children: Hephaestus, Hebe, and Ares

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  • Queen of the Olympian gods
  • Goddess of marriage and birth
  • Married to Zeus…children: Hephaestus, Hebe, and Ares
  • Jealous of Zeus’s other girlfriends…he punished her rivals and their children with implacable fury
  • Roman Name: Juno
  • Goddess of corn, grain, and the harvest
  • Parents: Zeus & Rhea
  • Children: Persephone
  • When Persephone was abducted by Hades, Demeter would not allow crops to grow. Zeus ordered that Persephone be returned to her mother from the underworld, but Hades said she had already eaten there, so she wasn’t allowed to leave. In the end, they decided Persephone would have to spend 4 months a year in the underworld...during that time, Demeter would not allow crops to grow (winter).
  • Roman Name: Ceres
  • Goddess of the wilderness, the hunt, and wild animals (& fertility); huntsman of the gods
  • Parents: Zeus and Leto
  • Guardian of young children and protectress of women in labor (gave them a quick death if they were dying)
  • Had the power to heal (like her brother, Apollo), but she also brought about diseases
  • Had a temper—killed Niobe’s daughters with Apollo
  • Roman Name: Diana
kronos cronus
Kronos (Cronus)
  • Titan who came to power by mutilating his own father…time began when Cronus took over
  • Son of Uranus (“Heaven”) and Gaea (“Earth); Wife—Rhea; Children—Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, & Zeus
  • An oracle told Cronus that one of his children would take his throne, so Cronus swallowed each of his children when they were born, except Zeus (because Rhea gave Cronus a rock in his place and then had Gaea raise Zeus). When Zeus grew up, he wanted to overtake his father’s thrown, so he convinced him to throw up his brothers and sisters. After they were back, Zeus and his 5 siblings went to war with the Titans, overthrew them, and sent them away from Mt. Olympus.
  • Roman Name: Saturnus
  • Goddess of the hearth fire (domestic life)
  • Eldest daughter of Cronus and Rhea
  • Did not want to marry, so she never did
  • Strongly connected to home and family
  • Roman Name: Vesta
  • AKA, the Erinyes
  • From these beings we have the words “furious” and “infuriated.”
  • The three furies were responsible for punishing all crime including the breaking of rules of ALL aspects of society. They even protected beggars, strangers, birds, and dogs.
  • They would strike offenders with madness and never stop following criminals.
  • Controlled destiny
  • Clotho—spun the thread of life (originally called upon during the 9thmonth of pregnancy)
  • Lachesis—measured the thread of life allotted to each person with her measuring rod
  • Atropos—cutter of the thread of life. She chose the manner and timing of each person’s death. When she cut the thread with her “abhorred shears,” someone on earth died
  • The three-headed dog who guards the entrance to the underworld
  • The ferryman of the dead. The souls of the dead are brought to him by Hermes, and Charon ferries them across the river Styx.
  • The living put a coin in the dead’s mouth to pay Charon.
  • Deep-thinking centaur
  • Never used weapons against humans
  • Had extensive knowledge of the healing arts
  • The only MORTAL gorgon…she was originally a beautiful enough human that Poseidon took an interest in her and seduced her in one of Athena’s temples, which was unforgivable. Athena, in turn, turned her into a gorgon (snakes for hair and a dragon body), but she remained mortal since she was originally a normal woman.
  • Her gaze could turn whomever she looked upon to stone
  • Athena helped Perseus kill Medusa later on by leading his hand/sword to cut off her head.
  • Half man, half bull
  • It was a terrible monster, so Minos had it enclosed in a labyrinth, and each year, he had seven young girls and seven young boys from Athens sacrificed to it.
  • Theseus killed the minotaur by pretending to be a sacrifice, but taking a long thread with him from the entrance until he found the minotaur and killed it. He was then able to find his way out the labyrinth by following his thread out. Theseus knew to use the thread because of Minos’s daughter, Ariadne.
  • Deities of the woods and mountains.
  • Half human & half beast
  • Usually have a goat’s tail, flanks and hooves
  • Upper part of body is human except for horns of a goat
  • Companions of Dionysus
  • AKA “fauns”
  • Son of Zeus and Danae
  • Killed Medusa with the help of Hermes and Athena by only looking at her reflection in his shield
  • Titan
  • Stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals
  • Punished by Zeus by having him chained forever…each day an eagle would come and eat his liver, but it would grow back, so the torture was never-ending
  • God of shepherds, flocks, and hunting
  • Satyr
  • Great musician, played the pipes
  • Not well liked by other gods
oracle of delphi
Oracle of Delphi
  • Oracle: Prophet
  • Oracle of Delphi: Most famous/well-known in Greek Mythology
  • Mortal who was very good at weaving…so good that she claimed to be better than the goddess of weaving, Athena
  • Athena was offended, but gave Arachne another chance…Arachne still challenged her
  • Arachne’s tapestry came out better than Athena’s in the end, so Athena gave Arachne guilt
  • Arachne hanged her self
  • Athena felt guilty, so brought her back to life as a spider so she and all ancestors could weave for the rest of their lives
  • Monster with many eyes…very helpful in making him a fantastic guard
  • Most well-known for guarding Io at Hera’s command. Zeus was angry and sent Hermes to retrieve Io. Hermes was able to lull Argus to sleep and Io was rescued.
  • Nymphs who presided over rivers, streams, brooks, springs, fountains, lakes, ponds, wells, and marshes
  • Usually related to cautionary tales
  • The fifty daughters of Nereus and Doris who swell in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Always helpful and friendly toward sailors fighting perilous storms
  • Able to prophesize
  • Female spirits of nature (nymphs) who preside over forests and groves
  • Each one born with a certain tree over which she watches
  • Connected to lives of trees…if tree dies, so does dryad…gods punish mortals who kill trees, and dryads punish mortals who harm trees
  • Bandit and torturer
  • Captured travelers and made them “fit” into one of his two beds
  • He placed tall travelers in his short bed and chopped off their limbs to make them fit
  • He placed short travelers in his long bed and stretched them out until they fit
  • Theseus killed Procrustes
  • Monster: Half nymph, half serpent
  • Lived in a cave and snatched up passers-by to eat them
  • Had “children” with Typhon—Cerberus, Orthrus, the Hydra, Chimera, and the Sphinx were offspring
  • Monster: head of a lion, body of a goat, tail of a dragon
lotus eaters
Lotus Eaters
  • Lived in a state of forgetfulness induced by eating the lotus plant
  • Odysseus came across the land of the lotus eaters with his sailors…sailors met the lotus eaters, ate their plants, and didn’t want to return to the ship…Odysseus searched out his men and forced them to return to the ship
  • Winged monsters with the face of an ugly old woman and equipped with crooked, sharp talons
  • Carried people off to the underworld, torturing them as they went
  • Mother of the gods…married to Cronus (mother of Zeus, Demeter, Hades, Hera, Hestia, and Poseidon)
  • Rhea was the one who helped save Zeus…hid him in Crete until he was grown