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Foundations of World History

Foundations of World History

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Foundations of World History

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  1. Foundations of World History

  2. Prehistory

  3. Key Terms • Artifacts-objects used by hominids such as tools, clothing, and weapons. • Nomads-people who wander from place to place in search of food. • Surplus-extra food. • Division of labor-people specializing in different kinds of work. • Civilizations-complex and organized societies. • Artisans-skilled workers of tools, pottery, and other goods. • Cultural diffusion-spread of ideas and other aspects of human culture.

  4. Early humans are known as hominids, which includes humans as well as earlier human-like creatures. • Early humans used tools and weapons to hunt animals for food. They eventually migrated, following moving herds of animals. • A new species called Homo sapiens first developed in Africa and later spread through Europe, Africa, and Asia. • Stone Age-area of prehistory that begins with the development of stone tools. • Paleolithic Era(Old Stone Age)-2.5 millions years ago-10,000 BCE.

  5. Advancements in tool making mark the New Stone Age, or Neolithic Era. • During this time humans ceased to be nomads in some places. • A major breakthrough in technology is the development of agriculture. This allowed Neolithic people to settle in one place. • Crops included wheat, barley, and rice. • Domesticating animals, such as goats, sheep, and pigs, is another innovation during this time period. This occurred around 8000BCE-3000BCE.

  6. Settlements grew into villages, and then cities with walls made of mud-brick houses. One of the oldest villages is Catal Huyuk in modern day Turkey, home to about 5,000 people by 6500BCE. • Cities relied on surplus which allowed for division of labor. • Complex and organized cities developed along the Nile Valley, Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Indus Valley, and Huang Valley.

  7. Also during this time period, governments and social classes, such as artisans, are established. • Buying and trading goods led to cultural diffusion.

  8. Ancient Egypt and Near East • Menes-king of Upper Egypt who united Egypt under one dynasty. • Pharaoh- title of Egyptian rulers. • Polytheism-belief in many gods. • Monotheism-belief in only one god. • Akhenaton- pharaoh who tried to change Egypt’s religious beliefs from polytheism to monotheism. • Ramses II-pharaoh after Akhenaton; known as Ramses the Great • Cuneiform-Sumerian sign-based system of writing. • Ziggurats-Sumerian temples. • Solomon-Hebrew king who ruled during the height of Israel’s wealth and power. • Diaspora-scattering

  9. Ancient Egypt and Near East • Egypt was separated into Upper and Lower Egypt. King Menes united the two. • During the Old Kingdom, pyramids and temples were built to serve as tombs for leaders. • The Middle Kingdom was Egypt’s golden age. • During the New Kingdom pharaohs ruled over foreign lands.

  10. Ancient Egypt and Near East • Ancient Egyptians were polytheistic, and believed in life after death. • Akhenaton tried to change Egypt to monotheistic, requiring all people to worship only Aton (the sun god). • Ramses II is well known for his building projects in Egypt.

  11. Ancient Egypt and Near East • The fertile area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is called Mesopotamia, also called the Fertile Crescent. • The Sumerians are responsible for creating cuneiform, which consisted of 600 signs, and ziggurats, or stepped pyramids.

  12. Ancient Egypt and Near East • The Hebrews came from Egypt and settled in Canaan. • They were monotheistic and their religion came be known as Judaism. • The Hebrew kingdom is Canaan became known as Israel. • Under its third king, Solomon, the kingdom of Israel reached the height of its wealth and power.

  13. Ancient Egypt and Near East • By the late 900s BCE, 10 of the 12 tribes revolted, splitting the kingdom in two. • Later the Assyrians conquered the northern part of the kingdom, still called Israel today. • In 586 BCE, the Chaldeans captured the southern kingdom, and exiled the Jews. This was the beginning of the diaspora.

  14. Ancient India and China • The first Indian civilization developed along the Indus River Valley. • Later, Aryans, who had superior military strength, dominated the region. • What we know about the Aryans comes from their religious literature, Vedas. The Vedas describes a complicated social structure, divided into four classes.

  15. Ancient India and China • Over time the Vedas formed into Hinduism, which spread throughout India. • One of the basic principles of Hinduism is the belief in the Brahman, the eternal being that created and preserves the world. • Hinduism also teaches reincarnation, the belief that souls are reborn over and over again. • A third principle is Dharma, a person’s responsibility to live morally.

  16. Ancient India and China • Over time the Vedas formed into Hinduism, which spread throughout India. • One of the basic principles of Hinduism is the belief in the Brahman, the eternal being that created and preserves the world. • Hinduism also teaches reincarnation, the belief that souls are reborn over and over again. • A third principle is Dharma, a person’s responsibility to live morally.

  17. Ancient India and China • Siddhartha Gautama became known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One”, began the religion known as Buddhism. • Buddhism accepts some of Hindu ideas but also believes that desire should be eliminated from people’s lives. • In Buddhism salvation comes from knowing Four Noble Truths (Suffering, Cause of Suffering, End of Suffering, Path that Frees us from Suffering).

  18. Ancient India and China • Mountains and deserts isolate China geographically. • The Zhou rulers believed in the Mandate of Heaven, the idea that gods determined who ruled China. A leading philosopher, Confucius, helped explain these ideas, teaching the importance of family and respect for ancestors. • The Qin dynasty united China and began construction on The Great Wall of China.

  19. Ancient India and China • Daoism teaches that people should not strive for power and wealth. Instead, they should be in harmony with the Dao, the force controlling the universe and nature.

  20. Ancient Greece and Rome

  21. Ancient Greece and Rome • The Iliad and The Odyssey, both written by a blind poet names Homer, were about early Greek warfare. • Greeks were polytheistic. • An independent city-state in ancient Greece is a polis. The two most important city-states were Athens and Sparta. • Athens and Sparta fought each other in the Peloponnesian War after joining forces to defeat a common enemy. • Athens was a direct democracy and Sparta was known for its military strength.

  22. Ancient Greece and Rome • The independent city-states were often fighting against each other for power. • Alexander the Great, Phillip II of Macedon’s son, arose as a powerful leader, crushed rebellions, and conquered foreign lands. • The blended culture of Greek and local cultures became known as Hellenistic, or Greek-like.

  23. Ancient Greece and Rome

  24. Ancient Greece and Rome • Rome was first ruled by a king and by 509 BCE became a republic, having a system of government in which voters elect officials to run the state. • Romans adapted Greek gods, voting, philosophy, architecture, and literature to meet their own needs. • As Rome expanded, it came into conflict with other powers such as Carthage in north Africa. The Punic Wars between the two states resulted in the destruction of Carthage.

  25. Ancient Greece and Rome • Internal strife weakened the republic until Octavian (Augustus), Julius Caesars grandnephew, gained control, declared himself emperor, and established the PaxRomana, or Roman Peace which lasted 200 years. • Eventually the empire grew corrupt, and was divided between East and West. For several hundred years the empire was attacked by Germanic tribes. • Christianity began to spread, and was adopted as the official religion of Rome by Constantine in 312 CE. This ended the persecution of Christians in Rome, allowing for the religion to spread further. • The last Roman emperor was overthrown in 476 CE, marking the end of the Roman Empire.

  26. Ancient Civilizations in the Americas

  27. Ancient Civilizations in the Americas • People migrated from Asia to the Americas between 35,000 and 8,000 years ago. • The Olmec was the earliest culture in Mexico. Their society was based on farming maize, or corn. Growing maize became a foundation for all civilizations in Mesoamerica. • When the Olmec collapsed the Maya emerged from the jungles of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador. • The Mayans were skilled architect and engineers, having built 40 city-states in their region. However, they did not have a unified empire.

  28. Ancient Civilizations in the Americas • The Aztecs emerged from the Toltecs located in central Mexico. Their large capital city, Tenochtitlan, had temples, markets, and palaces. • The Aztecs appeased the sun god with human sacrifices. • During the height of Aztec power in Mexico, the Incas of the Andes Mountains worshipped the sun and the moon.

  29. Ancient Civilizations in the Americas • Their empire stretched along west coast of South America. Their roads, education, and communication unified the vast empire. • The greatest diversity was found within the United States. • The Anasazi, in present day Arizona, built under ground chambers called a kiva, which was used for religious ceremonies. • The Hopewell and Mississippians Indians left earthen mounds along the eastern coast.

  30. Middle Ages-Muslim Civilization

  31. Middle Ages-Muslim Civilization • Muslim civilization inspired by the teachings of a religious leader named Muhammad, born in Mecca, arose in the early 600s. Soon an empire stretched from India to Spain. • Islam is based on two central beliefs: that there is only one God, and that each believer must obey God’s will. • The holy book of Islam is called the Qur’an, which is the word of God as revealed to Muhammad. • Islam has five basic rules called the Five Pillars of Islam. All Muslim’s are required to live by these rules.

  32. Middle Ages-Muslim Civilzation • Shahadah is a saying professing monotheism and accepting Muhammad as God’s messenger.The shahadah is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: (ašhadu an) lāilāhaillá l-Lāhu (waashhadu 'anna) Muḥammadanrasūlu l-Lāhi "(I profess that) there is no god except God and (I profess that) Muhammad is the Messenger of God.“ • Three types of fasting (Sawm) are recognized by the Qur’an: Ritual fasting, fasting as compensation for repentance, and ascetic fasting. • Zakāt giving is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all who are able to do so. • The Hajj is a pilgrimmage to the holy city of Mecca, and derives from an ancient Arab practice • Salat is the Islamic prayer. Salat consists of five daily prayers: Fajr, Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, and Isha'a. Fajr is performed before the light of dawn, Dhuhr is performed when the sun starts to decline from its zenith, Asr is performed in the afternoon, Maghrib is the sunset prayer, and Isha'a is the evening prayer.

  33. Middle Ages-African Kingdoms

  34. Middle Ages-African Kingdoms • Trading kept Africa in touch with the rest of the world. • In the southern portion of the Sahel, gold was traded for salt. Along this trade route in West Africa, cities flourished. • The earliest West African kingdom was Ghana, established around 300 CE, controlled the West African trade until the Kingdom of Mali emerged as leaders around 1235. • Mansa Musa, a Mali leader, established the city of Timbuktu as a center for Islamic thought.

  35. Middle Ages-African Kingdoms • Timbuktu, later controlled by the Songhai, and their king Sunni Ali succeeded by Askia Muhammad, restored Islam in this area, further extending the empire, and developed Timbuktu into a commercial center. • In East Africa the Kush, having similarities to Egyptians, developed along the Nile River in Nubia. • As the Kush declined, the Aksum people emerged from Egypt to the interior of Africa. The Aksum were led by King Ezana, who converted his kingdom to Christianity which began the foundations for the Ethiopian church today.

  36. Middle Ages-East Asia

  37. Middle Ages-East Asia • From c. 200-500 CE China suffered from instability and invasion until Sui dynasty established control. • The Sui built the Grand Canal, the world’s oldest and longest canal system. • The Sui dynasty enslaved its peoples, and became unpopular giving rise to the Tang dynasty in 618 CE. • Under the Tang dynasty China had its first Golden Age. During this time Buddhism became the state religion. • The second Golden Age came under the Song dynasty, who required people to study the works of Confucius. During this time cities and international trade expanded, and a cash system emerged. The world’s first paper money was printed in 1024CE.

  38. Middle Ages-East Asia • In the early 1200s, a Mongol force lead by Genghis Khan captured the Chinese capital, today called Beijing. The Mongols went on to capture the rest of China and part of Europe. • Under Mongolian rule China prospered became linked with India and Persia, growing economically. • After Kublai Khan’s death, the grandson of Genghis Khan, instability emerged and rebel forces pushed the Mongols back behind the Great Wall in 1368CE, ending their rule.

  39. Middle Ages-East Asia • Immigrants from China began moving to Korea in 300 BCE, taking much of Chinese culture with them. The people embraced the Chinese written language and practiced Confucianism, developing a different form of Buddhism. • Japan has also been influenced by Chinese culture, adopting Chinese written language and Buddhism. • As the feudal system in Japan declined, the military general, or shogun, became more powerful. The shogun gave power to local lords called daimyo, who controlled Japanese society at a local level. • The daimyo, who were protected by samurai, Japanese warriors, became the most powerful people in Japan.

  40. Middle Ages-Byzantine Empire