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It Was the Best of Times and the Worst of Times: PowerPoint Presentation
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It Was the Best of Times and the Worst of Times:

It Was the Best of Times and the Worst of Times:

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It Was the Best of Times and the Worst of Times:

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  1. Laura Ewing Texas Council on Economic Education P: 713.655.1650 F: 713.655.1655 STAAR Lessons for HS US History and Economics It Was the Best of Times and the Worst of Times:

  2. PowerPoint Adapted From A Presentation By Jean Walker West Texas Center for Economic Education College of Business West Texas A&M University Canyon, Texas STAAR Lessons for HS US Economics Teaching Financial Crises

  3. Teaches teachers who teach students who are the future of Texas Provides interesting hands-on lessons that develop critical thinking skills for students in Economics, Social Studies, Math, and Career/Technical Education classes. TCEE

  4. This workshop and the accompanying materials are made available to teachers through the generous support of  State Farm and the Council for Economic Education.

  5. Workshop and Materials Funded and/or Sponsored by:

  6. TCEE

  7. Economics Challenge • Fall and Spring Online Testing In Micro, Macro and International Economics • Adam Smith Division 2nd place national champs Bellaire HS 2010/3rd 2012 • David Ricardo Division 3rd place national champs Plano HS 2010/4th place 2012 • State competition in Austin

  8. Personal Financial Literacy Challenge • Middle and High School • Fall and spring online challenges will determine state finalist candidates • “State Play-Offs” in Austin with cash awards for two top teams • HS national finals at Fed in St. Louis • Bellaire HS Houston 2nd in nation 2012

  9. 10 week Student Session 10 Week Student Session Fall and SpringFidelity Sponsors Austin Area TeamsCash Prizes for Regional WinnersEducational Foundation DonationsTeams of 4 to 5 students

  10. How Do You Get These Materials? www/economicstexas/org

  11. Select either Browse Economics Concepts Or Browse Economics Lessons Select Grade Band

  12. Selected lesson

  13. To Receive VE4.0, Please Complete and Turn In- 1. A Registration form with the date, location and title of the workshop written in at the top of the form. Your state council on economic education or local center for economic education director has indicated you as someone who has recently attended a training on the use of one of our materials. As such, we would like to know about your experience with both our training and our product. Please take the time to fill out the following survey. 1. Overall, how effective will this publicationbe in helping you plan instruction? (1 = Useless, 3 = Somewhat Effective, 5 = Very Effective) 1 2 3 4 5 2. 2 evaluation forms with the date, location and title of the workshop written in at the top of the form. The evaluation begins with…

  14. Personal Financial Literacy • How To Really Be A Millionaire • The Economic Way of Thinking • What do $1 trillion, 94% and $25,000 have in common?

  15. Is College A Lousy Investment? • And the statistics say? Page 1 • Why don’t people enroll in college? What are the issues? Pages 2 to 4 • What are the solutions? Pages 5 to 7

  16. The Cost of College • Review pages 1 to 5: what is interesting? • Review one segment of pages 6 to 15. Have a one sentence summary/explanation as to the importance of the section. • Please visit the appendix for additional information

  17. How Much For That Candy? • What prices was paid? • What are three things you learned from the activity? • What happened to the value of the $???

  18. Teaching Financial Crises lessons: • Common elements of financial crises worldwide throughout history • Lesson 1 – compares 1907 & 2007 crises • Lesson 2 – compares 2007 crisis with: (emphasis on reading eco. Data) • Recession of 2001 (Dot-Com bubble burst, Enron, Worldcom, et.) • Recession of 1990-1991 (oil price shock due to Gulf War) • Recession of 1981-82 (tight money to control inflation) • Recession of 1973-75 (stagflation; OPEC oil embargo spiked oil prices) • Great Depression 1929-38 (stock market crash; falling demand) • Lesson 3 – a historical look at five bubbles & panics: • Tulipmania in the Dutch Republic – 1630’s • The South Sea Bubble – Great Britain 1711-1721 • The Roaring 20’s Stock Bubble – 1920’s • Japan’s Bubble Economy – 1985-90 • The Dot-Com Bubble – 1990’s • Lesson 4 – comparison to Lost Decade in Japan

  19. Teaching Financial Crises: . . . presents an organizing framework for putting into context the media attention that has been paid to the 2008 financial crisis . . . This publication, in it’s entirety, is included on the Virtual Economics CD, version 4.

  20. Teaching Financial Crises lessons: • Specific focus on the recent financial crisis • Lesson 5 – focuses on monetary policy • Students role play as Federal Reserve Board governors • Lesson 6 – examines the housing bubble • Heavy use of supply/demand graphs • Securitization simulation for students • Lesson 7 – helps students learn terminology about modern financial markets • Quiz bowl game on terminology • Lesson 8 – interaction between modern financial markets and monetary and fiscal policies • Students take part in mock trial

  21. Lesson 1, Activity 3, page 11 • Introduce the 2007 Financial Crisis with Activity 3 – Characters in the Financial Crisis • Announcer • Joe, who needs money for his kid’s college tuition • Bruce, the mortgage banker/mortgage broker • Mortimer, the old-time banker • Uncle Sam • Wall Street banker • Investment salesman • Village treasurer of Narvik, Norway • Bruce’s boss • The World – (all together) (Nine characters plus “the world”)

  22. Lesson 1, Activity 1, page 15 Have students complete Activity 1 as you progress through the slides of visual 1. If you have not taught about the recent financial crisis, you will find information in other lessons to assist with explanations. FYI: The slides for Activity 1 are available in powerpoint on


  24. SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE EVENTS IN 1906 DEVASTATION Shortly after 5 a.m. on April 18, a 7.8-magnitude quake, unleashed offshore, shook the city for just less than a minute.

  25. 80% OF THE CITY DESTROYED SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE 1906 UNCONTROLLABLE BLAZE Though the damage from the quake was severe, the subsequent fires from broken gas lines caused the vast majority of the destruction.


  27. INFLEXIBLE CURRENCY THE GOLD STANDARD TOUGH BALANCING ACT Between 1870 and 1914, many countries adhered to a gold standard. This strictly tied national money supplies to gold stocks. Currency was redeemed for gold at a fixed exchange rate.

  28. THE WORLD’S FINANCIAL SYSTEM HAD BECOME COMPLEX & INTERRELATED At the end of 1905, nearly 50% of the fire insurance in San Francisco was underwritten by British firms. The earthquake gave rise to a massive outflow of funds—of gold—from London. The magnitude of the resulting capital outflows in late summer and early autumn 1906 forced the Bank of England to undertake defensive measures to maintain its desired level of reserves. The central bank responded by raising its discount rate 2.5% in 1906. Actions by the Bank of England attracted gold imports and sharply reduced the flow of gold to the United States. Interest rates rose and by May 1907, the United States had fallen into one of the shortest, but most severe, recessions in American history.

  29. GREAT ECONOMIC PROMISE At the beginning of the century, the nation was brimming with a great amount of optimism. Here is a list of familiar companies founded between 1900 and 1905. • Eastman Kodak • Firestone Tire • Ford Motors • Harley-Davidson • Hershey • U.S. Steel • J.C. Penney • Pepsi-Cola • Texaco • Sylvania Electric

  30. EVENTS IN 1907 • In October 1907 two brothers, Otto and F. Augustus Heinze, attempted to manipulate the stock of a copper company. • They planned to corner the market in the copper company's shares by buying aggressively in hopes they could later force short sellers to buy them at high prices. • The plan did not have sufficient backing and failed.

  31. PANIC IN THE STREETS • News a number of prominent New York bankers were involved in the failed scheme began a crisis of confidence among depositors. • As additional institutions were implicated, queues formed outside numerous banks as people desperately sought their savings.

  32. FURTHER COMPLICATING MATTERS Trust companies were a financial innovation of the 1890s. They had many functions similar to state and national banks but were much less regulated. KNICKERBOCKER TRUST COMPANY

  33. GREATER RISKS WERE TAKEN • They were able to hold a wide array of assets and were not required to hold reserves against deposits. • They earned a higher rate of return on investments and paid out higher rates, but, to do this, they had to be highly leveraged. • They took more risks than traditional banks. Illustration from Harper's Weekly December 20, 1913 by Walter J. Enright

  34. A NEW YORK CITY BANK RUN IN NOVEMBER 1907 The runs on deposits that sparked the Panic of 1907 were at two of the largest New York City trust companies: Knickerbocker Trust and Trust Company of America.

  35. THE IMPACT The crash and panic of 1907 had a dramatic effect on the health of the American and worldwide economies. In the United States: Commodity prices fell 21 %. Industrial production fell more than in any other crisis in American history to that point. The dollar volume of bankruptcies declared in November was up 47 % from the previous year. The value of all listed stocks in the U.S. fell 37 %. In October and November 1907, 25 banks and 17 trust companies failed. Thousands of depositors lost their life savings. Gross earnings by railroads fell by 6 % in December and production fell 11%. Wholesale prices fell 5 %. Imports shrank 26 %. In a few short months, unemployment rose from 2.8 % to 8%. Immigration reached a peak of 1.2 million in 1907 but fell to around 750,000 by 1909.

  36. NEITHER ELECTED NOR APPOINTED, HE FELT IT WAS HIS TIME TO ACT WHAT WAS DONE? J.P. MORGAN In the absence of a strong federal regulatory structure or any safety nets, the response to this crisis had to be delivered by a private citizen, J.P. Morgan, the world’s most powerful banker. He used all of his influence to convince fellow titans of industry to pool their resources and salvage the nation. The Panic subsided after six weeks.

  37. A BUCKET SHOP IN 1907 LESSONS FROM THE PANIC OF 1907 SPECULATION IN OFF-STREET MARKETS Bucket shops were blamed for fueling the speculation in 1907. They enabled people to speculate on the value of a stock without having to purchase the stock itself. The actual order to purchase went in the “bucket.” Beginning in 1909, New York banned bucket shops and other states followed.

  38. ……….AND LOST!! THE FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2007 THE WORLD MADE HUGE INVESTMENTS IN THE U.S. HOUSING MARKET By ignoring risk, remaining irrationally optimistic, and forgoing transparency through an array of fantastically complicated investment vehicles, the world’s financial markets were extremely dependent on housing prices. The underlying assumptions were (1) that housing prices never fall and (2) homeowners almost always pay their mortgages.


  40. STRONGLY PROMOTED HOMEOWNERSHIP THE ORIGINS OF THE CRISIS FORMER PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH “We can put light where there’s darkness, and hope where there’s despondency in this country. And part of it is working together as a nation to encourage folks to own their own home” –President Bush, October 15, 2002.

  41. THIS WAS TOO TEMPTING FOR THE FINANCIAL INSTUTIONS CAUSES OF THE CRISIS HIGHLY COMPLEX FORMS OF FINANCING The momentum behind the expansion of homeownership led the government to reduce regulations and capital requirements for making loans. This led to a dizzying number of innovative ways to get less-qualified borrowers a mortgage and seemed to reduce risk for the lender. Mortgages could be bundled and sold around the world as securities.

  42. RISK-RATING AGENCIES CAUSES OF THE CRISIS TRUSTED AGENCIES FAILED TO WARN INVESTORS Mortgage-backed securities were constructed of mortgages of differing quality levels. The obligations of solid and sub-prime borrowers were mixed in a manner that made it very difficult for experts to calculate risk. The assumption that U.S. housing prices would continue to rise and incentives to provide good ratings led agencies to rate these securities as AAA, lowering investors’ concerns.

  43. THE PERFECT STORM EFFECTS OF THE CRISIS WHAT WERE WE THINKING? Homeownership peaks in early 2005 at 70% of households. The Fed raises interest rates. Home prices fall. Higher adjustable interest rates increase payments for borrowers. Borrowers default in waves. Dozens of subprime lenders file for bankruptcy. Mortgage-backed securities lose value as investors question their contents. Financial institutions struggle to find buyers for the MBSs.

  44. “FINANCIAL WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION” Financial institutions could purchase credit default swaps. A CDS is a private insurance contract that paid off if the investment failed. One did not actually have to own the investment to collect on the insurance. These promises were unregulated, and the sellers did not have to set aside money to pay for losses.

  45. THE FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2007-2009 • Bank failures: 183 (2%) 12/07-2/10 (No deposits lost) • Unemployment rate: 10.1% (10/09) • Economic decline: -4.1% (4Q 2007-2Q 2009) • Biggest drop in DJIA: -53.8% (12/07-3/09) • Emergency spending and tax reduction programs: 2.5% of GDP in 2008 and in 2009 • Aggressive increase in monetary stimulus by the Fed

  46. THE FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2007-2009 6.7 million jobs lost in 2008 and 2009 Capital investment levels lowest in 50 years Domestic demand declines 11 consecutive quarters Industrial production down worldwide: Japan 31%, South Korea 26% , Russia 16% , Brazil 15% , Italy 14%, Germany 12%

  47. The federal government unleashed a series of remedies in an attempt to limit the contagion. Massive sums of bank reserves were created to ease fears. In the process, the taxpayers took over or funded several familiar financial and nonfinancial companies. This time the government bails out the economy and business leaders and bankers are criticized.

  48. 2007 SIMILARITIES 1907 Highly complex and linked financial system Strong growth in the economy starting in 1900 Many people and institutions highly leveraged Innovative form of finance: trust companies Stock market setting all-time highs A limited role for government Markets swing from great optimism to great pessimism Global interdependent financial system Vibrant economic recovery after recession in 2001 Lenders willing to take more risk in making loans Unregulated financial institutions: hedge funds Companies reporting record earnings Absence of many safety buffers Dow 14,164 to 6,500 in 16 months

  49. 2007 DIFFERENCES 1907 J.P. Morgan, a private citizen, orchestrated the bailout The Panic lasted for six weeks, though the economy didn’t return to pre-Panic levels until 1909 Many banks were closed and many depositors lost their savings The nation was on the gold standard and the supply of money was fixed The San Francisco earthquake was a catalyst for the Panic The climate toward business was hostile prior to crisis The Federal Reserve and Treasury Department organize the reaction The event has been unfurling for more than five years Many banks closed and folded into healthier banks, but depositors did not lose any of their savings The nation uses Federal Reserve notes, creating a flexible money supply Hurricane Katrina was generally benign as a catalyst The climate toward business was friendly prior to crisis

  50. FYI: • Community Reinvestment Act– signed in 1977 by Jimmy Carter • Induced lenders to enter underserved or “red-lined” areas. • 1993 -1995, President Clinton asked regulators to reform the CRA to "deal with the problems of the inner city and distressed rural communities”--availability of credit should not depend on where a person lives. • The Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994, which repealed restrictions on interstate banking, used CRA ratings as a consideration when determining whether to allow interstate branches • George Bush, as early as 2002, pushed home ownership—”an ownership nation.” • In 2007 Ben Bernanke suggested further increasing the presence of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in the affordable housing market to help banks fulfill their CRA obligations by providing them with more opportunities to securitize CRA-related loans.