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SUDAN SESAME SEED OUTLOOK. Introduction . AGRICULTURE IN SUDAN Total area of Sudan is now about 185Million Hectares of which, 43% i.e. 80Million is suitable for agricultural development ; yet only 25% of it is so far invested

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introduction
Introduction

AGRICULTURE IN SUDAN

  • Total area of Sudan is now about 185Million Hectares of which, 43% i.e. 80Million is suitable for agricultural development ; yet only 25% of it is so far invested
  • Over 60% of the total population are involved in the Agricultural both sectors; plantation & livestock.
  • 95% of the country’s non-oil exports is gained from agricultural products. For example 2010-2011 was 700Million USD.
slide3

Annually it’s estimated that 16.9 million hectares (41.8 million acres) of arable land and approximately 1.9 million hectares (4.7 million acres) set aside for irrigation, along the banks of the Nile and other rivers , is allocated for agriculture .

  • Cash crops grown under irrigation in these areas include cotton, which is of primary importance to the economy with 172,000 tons and 131,000 tons of cotton seed produced annually , sesame (220,000 tons), sugarcane(5,950,000 tons), peanuts(980,000 tons), dates(176,000 tons), citrus fruits , yams (136,000 tons), tomatoes (240,000 tons), mangoes , coffee …etc .
  • The main subsistence crops produced in Sudan are sorghum(3,045,000 tons), millet (1,499,000 tons), wheat(168,000 tons), cowpeas , beans, pulses, corn(65,000), and barley.

(Source: U.S. Library of Congress)

sesame
SESAME
  • Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum.
  • It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods.
  • The flowers of the sesame seed plant are yellow, though they can vary in colour with some being blue or purple.
  • The flowers are white to purple, tubular, 3 to 5 cm (1.2 to 2.0 in) long, with a four-lobed mouth.
slide6

Sesame is considered as one of important oil seed crops besides being a food for human being whether directly as seed or oil as main material for many food industry like different sweet industries besides it use in medicine, soup industry and cleaning.

  • There is an increase in the international & local demand in the sesame and thus more attention is being given to develop and increase productivity.
  • Sesame is cultivated mainly in India, China & Africa; in particular Sudan & Ethiopia.
slide8

Sudan is the world's third largest producer of sesame after India and China.

  • Sesame is the most important vegetable oil crop in Sudan, coming third in area after sorghum and millet (Dukhn). It draws its importance as a food crop, a raw material for industry, as a feed for livestock, as well as a leading export crop.
areas of cultivation
Areas Of Cultivation
  • It is Cultivated by rain in North Kordofan (Um Ruwaba and Shikan province)& in Gadaref, Blue Nile , Sennar & in small areas in North Darfur , River Nile & Rank & Southern provinces.

North Kordofan

Gadaref

North Darfur

Sennar

Blue Nile

WhiteNile

north kurdufan state
North Kurdufan State

Area of 185,302 km² - population of 2,529,370 (2006)- Al.Ubayyid is the capital of the state

Sesame Cultivated Area & Production in The State

  • ( Source: Ministry of Agriculture- Sudan)
al gedaref state
Al Gedaref State

Area of 75,263 km2 - population of 1,369,300 (2006) - Al Gedaref is the capital of the state.

Sesame Cultivated Area & Production in The State

  • ( Source: Ministry of Agriculture- Sudan)
blue nile state
Blue Nile state

Area of 45,844 km2population of 832,112 (2006) -Ad-Damazin is the capital of the state

Sesame Cultivated Area & Production in The State

  • ( Source: Ministry of Agriculture- Sudan)
sennar state
Sennar State

Area of 37,844 km2population of 1,532,085 (2006) - Sennar is the capital of the state.

Sesame Cultivated Area & Production in The State

  • ( Source: Ministry of Agriculture- Sudan)
white nile state
White Nile state

Area of 30,411 km2 -population of 1,188,707 (2006) -Rabak is the capital of the state.

Sesame Cultivated Area & Production in The State

  • ( Source: Ministry of Agriculture- Sudan)
types of sesame
Types of Sesame
  • Traditional types : in traditional sector the following types are cultivated :

* HAREEHRY ( early ripe )

* GABROOK ( medium ripe )

* traditional and GABALY ( late ripe )

  • Improved types: these types are approved by agricultural research corporation & cultivated in specific areas .

* ZEIRRA 1,3,6,7 types of white seeds

* HORIYA 39 – of brown seeds

*KENANA –K3

* PROMO K

* Types of early ripe like KENANA 2

time of cultivation in sudan
Time of Cultivation in Sudan
  • Results Of different researches confirmed that ideal time in general in the muddy lands of mechanical Cultivation after rain Fall Of 100 m.m or enough quantity of rain to close gabs in land. This takes place in the beginning of July OR mid June in the southern area Of Cultivation OR the Northern area after 15 days .
  • Early Cultivation means Cultivation first then removal Of grasses after growth Of the Crop i.e.
  • Cultivation without plowing and this means move cost in removing grass but it is compensated by increase in production. While on the other hand delay in cultivation means that small plants will be faced by heavy rain during August leading to death of many plants. Moreover late Cultivation means that Crops will be target to insect and thirst at the end of the season besides plowing wet land will hinder preparing good bed for seeds.
method of cultivation in sudan
Method of Cultivation in Sudan
  • Sesame is cultivated mechanically by machines in mechanical cultivation and by hand in the rainy cultivation . cultivation must in lines and selection of the suitable types for mechanical harvest and must be homogeneous in growth and height .
  • Also cultivation by hand takes place in rainy traditional sector mixing it with sand and use two fingers of the hand in throwing seeds .
  • The recommended plant density is 90-100 thousand plant for feddan . the area between plants is 60 C.m. between lines and 7-10 C.m. between plants within the one line . To get the recommended plant density the quantity of seeds must be 1-5 Kg for every feddan by cultivation in row planter .
slide20

The agricultural recommended round that must be followed is to cultivate half area sesame and the other half be another grass crop or to be left without cultivation .

  • Grasses must be struggled by the following :-

1. Use of chemical insecticides .

2. Mechanical cutting of grasses which needs cultivation in organized lines .

3. Plowing uncultivated areas before seeds plantation.

economics of sesame
Economics of Sesame
  • Sesame exports play an important role in the national economy , Sesame besides its role in achieving food security for human beings and animal food besides provision of raw material for some industries. Sudan is one of the important and biggest producing countries .

Sesame Seeds Exports, Annual Growth and Share in Non Oil Export During the Period 2000-2006

  • ( Source: Sudan Trade Point – sesame report )
average sudan s sesame price
Average Sudan’s Sesame Price

Natural FOB ($/Mt)

  • ( Source: Sudan Trade Point – sesame report )
top importers of sesame seeds from sudan in 2009
Top Importers of Sesame seeds from Sudan in 2009
  • ( Source: Sudan Trade Point – sesame report )
cultivated areas during the period 2005 2009
Cultivated Areas During The Period 2005-2009
  • ( Source: Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) )
productivity of hectare during the period 2005 2009
Productivity of Hectare During The Period 2005-2009
  • ( Source: Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) )
top importers of sesame during the period 2006 2010
Top Importers of Sesame During the Period 2006-2010
  • ( Source: Sudan Trade Point – sesame report )
top exporters of sesame during 2005 2009
Top Exporters Of Sesame During 2005 - 2009
  • ( Source: Sudan Trade Point – sesame report )
highlights on season 2011 in some states
Highlights on Season 2011 in Some States
  • ( Source: MSG market survey )
  • The total production this season is estimated to be 193,000 MT ( Source: Food Agriculture Organization (FAO), due to late & below average rainy season.
  • The local consumption annually is between 50-60,000 MT, according to government estimates.
  • Total Exports: About 32,000 MT Available Stocks: 161,000MT
egypt sesame market
Egypt Sesame Market
  • This market is a special one due to

1- Sudanese Sesame covers 45% of Egyptian market which is 60-70 thousands MT annually.

2- Egyptian market takes all types of Sudanese sesame ( White , Red , Mixed ) .

slide31

3- Sesame exports goes by sea , land, river transportation because of neighborhood .

.

4- Ease of movement & travel of traders between the two countries

the effect of southern sudan secession on sesame production export
The effect of Southern Sudan Secession on Sesame Production & Export
  • Developing programs were put in place to increase export of all crops (Sesame, cotton, sorghum …etc)
  • In general; separation of South Sudan resulted in more attention to agricultural production. Sesame production will have more chances being one the major export crops.
  • Production used to come from South Sudan (Rank state) is about 4-6,000MT, which has no significant affect on the total Sudanese sesame quaintly. Nevertheless, the export of this quantity will have to be through the North Sudan until the south Sudan is ready to do exports from other ports.