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Inclusive Practice and Self-Determination

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  1. Inclusive Practice and Self-Determination Deborah Crowther, April Goldberg, Ryan Stuewe, Donna Robles, Amanda Winkler

  2. Social Importance of Issue • Self-determination can influence positive outcomes, increase agency and enhance quality of life for individuals with disabilities and their families (Wehmeyer, 1999). • Two conditions of self-determination, social inclusion and social capital are relevant as it relates to the educational experience of the individual with disabilities. • Inclusive practice has the potential to promote many key aspects of self-determination for students with disabilities. • Fundamental benefits of inclusion not only increase self-determination, but also enhance access to social capital.

  3. Review of Literature • 1. Self-Determination • 2. Inclusion • 3. Early Inclusion • 4. Peer Attitudes • 5. Social Capital

  4. Conceptual Model • The researchers believe that the fundamental benefits of inclusion not only increase self-determination, but also enhance access to social capital. Furthermore, a dynamic and ongoing interplay between these conditions can enhance quality of life and self-realization for individuals with disabilities, empowering them as active agents and volitional members of society.

  5. Conceptual Model

  6. Research Question Do K-3 students with disabilities who are included have higher measures of self-determination than those who are segregated?

  7. Methods • Setting: Two settings; self-contained classroom and inclusive classroom • Participants: Fifteen students receiving special education services in self-contained(ages 4-8) Fifteen students receiving services in inclusive classroom (ages 4-8) • Parents • Educators/Researchers • Sample size: 30 students

  8. Dependent Variable/measures • Outcome variables- self-determination as measured by the AIR Self-Determination Scale. • Capacity + • Opportunity • = self-determination • Outcome measures- three forms of the AIR Self-Determination Scale • Student • Parent • Educator/Researcher

  9. Independent Variables/measures • Inclusive Classroom • The non-included participants were identified, based on a negative example of the inclusive classroom definition • Descriptive statistics • Demographics • Professional characteristics

  10. Procedures • Implementation • Select students from two different schools • One group self-contained classroom & one group inclusive classroom • Identify teachers and parents • Data Collection • Distribute AIR Scales & Profiles • Administer and collect finished scales & profiles • Data Analysis • Independent/Dependent variable categorical • Chi-square test with contingency tables • Analyze differences between pre and post scores

  11. Timeline For Completing Project

  12. References • Carter, E., Moss, C., Hoffman, A., Chung, Y. & Sisco, L. (2011). Efficacy and social validity of peer   support arrangements for adolescents with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 78 (1), 107-125 • Chenoweth, L., & Stehlik, D. (2004). Implications of social capital for the inclusion of people with   disabilities and families in community life.  International Journal of Inclusive Education,8(1), 59-72. • Cho, H., Wehmeyer, M, Kingston, N. (2011). Elementary teachers’ knowledge and use of interventions and barriers to promoting student self-determination. The Journal of Special Education, 45(3), 149-156. • Cross, A., Traub, E., Hutter-Pishgahi, L., & Shelton, G. (2004). Elements of successful inclusion for   children with significant disabilities.  Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24(3), 169-183. • Douglas, F. (1999). According to their peers: Inclusion as high school student see it. Mental   Retardation, 37 (6), 458-467 • Favazza, P. D., & Odom, S. L. (1997) Promoting positive attitudes of kindergarten-age      children toward people with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 63(3), 405-418. • Gibb, K., Tunbridge, D., Chua, A., & Frederickson, N. (2007).  Pathways to inclusion:  moving  from special school to mainstream.  Educational Psychology in Practice, 23(2), 109-127. • Gotto, G., Calkins, C., Jackson, L., Walker, H. & Beckman, C. (2010). Accessing social capital: Implications for persons with disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.aucd.org/docs/Accessing%20Social%20Capital%20Implications%20for%20Persons%20With%20Disab    ilities,%20Final.pdf. • Harrower, J. K. (1999). Educational inclusion of children with severe disabilities. Journal of Positive   Behavior Intervention, 1(4), 215-230.

  13. References • Humphrey, N. & Symes, W. (2010). Peer-group indicators of social inclusion among pupils with  autism spectrum disorders in mainstream secondary schools: A comparative study. School    Psychology International, 31 (5), 478-494 • Kalymon, K., Gettinger, M. & Hanley-Maxwell, C. (2010). Middle school boys’ perspectives  on social relationships with peers with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 31(4), 305-316. • Loman, S.L., Vatland, C., Strickland-Cohen, K., Horner, R.H., & Walker, H.M. (2010). Promoting    self-determination: A practice guide. National Gateway to Self-Determination: Funded by the    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration of Developmental    Disabilities.http://www.aucd.org/NGSD/template/link.cfm. • Quintero, N., & McIntyre, L. L. (2011). Kindergarten transition preparation: a comparison   of parent and teacher practices for children with autism and other developmental disabilities.EarlyChildhood Education Journal38(6), 411-420. • Salend, S & Garrick Duhaney, L. (1999). The impact of inclusion on students with and without disabilities and their educators. Remedial and Special Education, 20 (2), 114-126. • Trainor, A. (2008). Using cultural and social capital to improve postsecondary outcomes and expand transition models for youth with disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 42 (3), 148-162. • Walker, H., Calkins, C., Wehmeyer, M., Walker, L., Bacon, A., Palmer, S., ... Johnson, D. (2011). • A social-ecological approach to promote self-determination.  Exceptionality, 19, 6-18. • Wehmeyer, M. (1999) A functional model of self-determination: Describing development and implementing instruction. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 14 (1), 53-61. • Wehmeyer, M., Palmer, S., Lee, Y. Williams-Diehm, K, & Shogren, K. (2011). A randomized trial evaluation of the effect of Whose Future is it Anyway? on self-determination. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 34 (1), 45-56. • Wolman, J., Campeau, P., Dubois, P., & Stolarski, V. (1994). AIR Self-Determination Scale and user guide. Palo Alto, CA: American Institute for Research. • Zhang, D. (2001). Self-determination and inclusion: Are students with mild mental retardation more self-determined in regular classrooms?". Education and training in mental retardation and   developmental disabilities, 36 (4), 357-362.