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Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values. Situational factors. Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress. MARS Model of Individual Behavior. Motivation. Individual behavior and results. Ability. Role perceptions. 2- 2. S. M. BAR. A. R. Employee Motivation.

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Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values

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    1. Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values

    2. Situational factors Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress MARS Model of Individual Behavior Motivation Individual behavior and results Ability Role perceptions 2-2

    3. S M BAR A R Employee Motivation • Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice ofbehavior • direction • intensity • persistence 2-3

    4. S M BAR A R Employee Ability • Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task • Competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance • Person  job matching • selecting • developing • redesigning 2-4

    5. S M BAR A R Role Perceptions • Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results: • understanding what tasks to perform • understanding relative importance of tasks • understanding preferredbehaviors to accomplish tasks 2-5

    6. S M BAR A R Situational Factors • Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior • time • people • budget • work facilities 2-6

    7. Defining Personality • Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics • External traits – observable behaviors • Internal states – thoughts, values, etc inferred from behaviors • Some variability, adjust to suit the situation 2-7

    8. Nature vs. Nurture of Personality • Influenced by Nature • Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioural tendencies and 30 percent of temperament • Minnesota studies – twins had similar behaviour patterns • Influenced by Nurture • Socialization, life experiences, learning also affect personality • Personality isn’t stable at birth • Stabilizes throughout adolescence • Executive function steers using our self-concept as a guide 2-8

    9. Five-Factor Personality Model (CANOE) Conscientiousness Careful, dependable Agreeableness Courteous, caring Neuroticism Anxious, hostile Openness to Experience Sensitive, flexible Extroversion Outgoing, talkative 2-9

    10. Five-Factor Personality and Organizational Behavior • Conscientiousness and emotional stability • Motivational components of personality • Strongest personality predictors of performance • Extroversion • Linked to sales and mgt performance • Related to social interaction and persuasion • Agreeableness • Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness • Openness to experience • Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change 2-10

    11. Jungian Personality Theory • Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung • Identifies preferences for perceiving the environment and obtaining/processing information • Commonly measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 2-11

    12. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • Extroversion versus introversion • similar to five-factor dimension • Sensing versus intuition • collecting information through senses versus through intuition, inspiration or subjective sources • Thinking versus feeling • processing and evaluating information • using rational logic versus personal values • Judging versus perceiving • orient themselves to the outer world • order and structure or flexibility and spontaneity 2-12

    13. An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations “Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?” Guides individual decisions and behavior Self-Concept Defined 2-13

    14. Three “C’s” of Self-Concept • Complexity • People have multiple self-concepts • Consistency • Improved wellbeing when multiple self-concepts require similar personality traits and values • Clarity • Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time. • Self-concept clarity requires self-concept consistency 2-14

    15. Four “Selves” of Self-Concept • Self-enhancement • Promoting and protecting our positive self-view • Self-verification • Affirming our existing self-concept (good and bad elements) • Self-evaluation • Evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control • Social self • Defining ourselves in terms of group membership 2-15

    16. Self-Concept: Self-Enhancement • Drive to promote/protect a positive self-view • competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued • Strongest in common/important situations • Positive self-concept outcomes: • better personal adjustment and mental/physical health • inflates personal causation and probability of success 2-16

    17. Self-Concept: Self-Verification • Motivation to verify/maintain our existing self-concept • Stabilizes our self-concept • People prefer feedback consistent with their self-concept • Self-verification outcomes: • We ignore or reject info inconsistent with self-concept • We interact more with those who affirm/reflect self-concept 2-17

    18. Self-Concept: Self-Evaluation • Defined mainly by three dimensions: • Self-esteem • High self-esteem -- less influenced, more persistent/logical • Self-efficacy • Belief in one’s ability, motivation, role perceptions, and situation to complete a task successfully • General vs. task-specific self-efficacy • Locus of control • General belief about personal control over life events • Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control 2-18

    19. Social identity -- defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment We identify with groups that have high status -- aids self-enhancement Self-Concept: Social Self Contrasting Groups IBM Employee Employees at other firms An individual’s social identity Live in U.S.A. People living in other countries Graduates of other schools University of Dallas Graduate 2-19

    20. Values in the Workplace • Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences • Define right or wrong, good or bad • Value system -- hierarchy of values 2-20

    21. Schwartz’s Values Model 2-21

    22. Schwartz’s Values Model • Openness to change – motivation to pursue innovative ways • Conservation -- motivation to preserve the status quo • Self-enhancement -- motivated by self-interest • Self-transcendence -- motivation to promote welfare of others and nature 2-22

    23. Values and Behavior • Habitual behavior usually consistent with values, but conscious behavior less so because values are abstract constructs • Decisions and behavior are linked to values when: • Mindful of our values • Have logical reasons to apply values in that situation • Situation does not interfere 2-23

    24. Values Congruence • Where two or more entities have similar value systems • Problems with incongruence • Incompatible decisions • Lower satisfaction/loyalty • Higher stress and turnover • Benefits of incongruence • Better decision making (diverse perspectives) • Avoids “corporate cults” 2-24

    25. Values Across Cultures: Individualism and Collectivism • Degree that people value duty to their group (collectivism) versus independence and person uniqueness (individualism) • Previously considered opposites, but unrelated -- i.e. possible to value high individualism and high collectivism 2-25

    26. Individualism High Individualism The degree to which people value personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities U.S. Italy India Denmark Taiwan Low Individualism 2-26

    27. Collectivism High Collectivism The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious relationships within the group Italy Taiwan India Denmark U.S. Low Collectivism 2-27

    28. Power Distance High Power Distance • High power distance • Value obedience to authority • Comfortable receiving commands from superiors • Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts • Low power distance • Expect relatively equal power sharing • View relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence Malaysia Venezuela Japan U.S. Denmark Israel Low Power Distance 2-28

    29. Uncertainty Avoidance High U. A. • High uncertainty avoidance • feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty • value structured situations and direct communication • Low uncertainty avoidance • tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty Greece Japan Italy U.S. Singapore Low U. A. 2-29

    30. Achievement-Nurturing Achievement • High achievement orientation • assertiveness • competitiveness • materialism • High nurturing orientation • relationships • others’ well-being Japan China U.S. France Chile Sweden Nurturing 2-30

    31. Three Ethical Principles Utilitarianism Greatest good for the greatest number of people Individual Rights Fundamental entitlementsin society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits 2-31

    32. Influences on Ethical Conduct • Moral intensity • degree that issue demands ethical principles • Ethical sensitivity • ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue • Situational influences • competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behavior 2-32

    33. Supporting Ethical Behavior • Ethical code of conduct • Ethics training • Ethics hotlines • Ethical leadership and culture 2-33