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Personality and Consumer Behavior
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  1. Personality and Consumer Behavior CHAPTER FIVE

  2. Learning Objectives • To Understand How Personality Reflects Consumers’ Inner Differences. • To Understand How Freudian, Neo-Freudian, and Trait Theories Each Explain the Influence of Personality on Consumers’ Attitudes and Behavior. • To Understand How Personality Reflects Consumers’ Responses to Product and Marketing Messages. Chapter Five Slide

  3. Learning Objectives (continued) • To Understand How Marketers Seek to Create Brand Personalities-Like Traits. • To Understand How the Products and Services That Consumers Use Enhance Their Self-Images. • To Understand How Consumers Can Create Online Identities Reflecting a Particular Set of Personality Traits. Chapter Five Slide

  4. Personality and The Nature of Personality • The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment • The Nature of Personality: • Personality reflects individual differences • Personality is consistent and enduring • Personality can change Chapter Five Slide

  5. Discussion Questions • How would you describe your personality? • How does it influence products that you purchase? Chapter Five Slide

  6. Theories of Personality • Freudian theory • Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation • Neo-Freudian personality theory • Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality • Trait theory • Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits Chapter Five Slide

  7. Freudian Theory • Id • Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction • Superego • Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct • Ego • Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego Chapter Five Slide

  8. Snack Foods and Personality Traits Table 5.1 (excerpt) Chapter Five Slide

  9. Dichter’s Consumption Motives

  10. How Does This Marketing Message Apply the Notion of the Id? Chapter Five Slide

  11. It Captures Some of the Mystery and The Excitement Associated With the “Forces” of Primitive Drives. Chapter Five Slide

  12. Neo-Freudian Personality Theory • Social relationships are fundamental to personality • Alfred Adler: • Style of life • Feelings of inferiority • Harry Stack Sullivan • We establish relationships with others to reduce tensions • Karen Horney’s three personality groups • Compliant: move toward others • Aggressive: move against others • Detached: move away from others Chapter Five Slide

  13. BrandAsset Valuator Archetypes Figure 6.1 (part 1 of 2)

  14. BrandAsset Valuator Archetypes (cont.) Figure 6.1 (part 2 of 2)

  15. BrandAsset® Archetypes + BAV® Brand Health • Archetypes across cultures and time • Archetypes telegraph instantly • Strong evidence of achieving business objectives with this model • “Early warning” signal of brand trouble

  16. Trait Theory • Focus on measurement of personality in terms of traits • Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another • Personality is linked to broad product categories and NOT specific brands Chapter Five Slide

  17. Soup and Soup Lover’s TraitsTable 5.2 (excerpt) • Chicken Noodle Soup Lovers • Watch a lot of TV • Are family oriented • Have a great sense of humor • Are outgoing and loyal • Like daytime talk shows • Most likely to go to church • Tomato Soup Lovers • Passionate about reading • Love pets • Like meeting people for coffee • Aren’t usually the life of the party • Vegetable/Minestrone Soup Lovers • Enjoy the outdoors • Usually game for trying new things • Spend more money than any other group dining in fancy restaurants • Likely to be physically fit • Gardening is often a favorite hobby Chapter Five Slide

  18. Problems with Trait Theory • Prediction of product choices using traits of consumers is mixed at best • Scales not valid/reliable • Tests borrow scales used for the mentally ill • Inappropriate testing conditions • Ad hoc instrument changes • Use of global measures to predict specific brand purchases • “Shotgun approach” (no thought of scale application)

  19. Personality and Understanding Consumer Behavior Chapter Five Slide

  20. How Does This Ad Target the Inner-Directed Outdoors Person? Chapter Five Slide

  21. Consumer Innovativeness • Willingness to innovate • Further broken down for hi-tech products • Global innovativeness • Domain-specific innovativeness • Innovative behavior Chapter Five Slide

  22. Consumer Motivation ScalesTable 5.3 (excerpt) A “GENERAL” CONSUMER INNOVATIVENESS SCALE 1. I would rather stick to a brand I usually buy than try something I am not very sure of. 2. When I go to a restaurant, I feel it is safer to order dishes I am familiar with. A DOMAIN-SPECIFIC CONSUMER INNOVATIVENESS SCALE 1. Compared to my friends, I own few rock albums. 2. In general, I am the last in my circle of friends to know the titles of the latest rock albums. Chapter Five Slide

  23. Dogmatism • A personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs Chapter Five Slide

  24. Personality and Understanding Consumer Behavior • Ranges on a continuum for inner-directedness to other-directedness • Inner-directedness • rely on own values when evaluating products • Innovators • Other-directedness • look to others • less likely to be innovators Chapter Five Slide

  25. Need for Uniqueness • Consumers who avoid conforming to expectations or standards of others Chapter Five Slide

  26. Optimum Stimulation Level • A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences • High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers. Chapter Five Slide

  27. The need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experience. And the willingness to take social and physical risks for the sensations. Sensation Seeking Chapter Five Slide

  28. Variety-Novelty Seeking • Measures a consumer’s degree of variety seeking • Examples include: • Exploratory Purchase Behavior • Use Innovativeness • Vicarious Exploration Chapter Five Slide

  29. Cognitive Personality Factors • Need for cognition (NFC) • A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking • Individual with high NFC more likely to respond to ads rich in product information . Chapter Five Slide

  30. Cognitive Personality Factors • Visualizers • Verbalizers Chapter Five Slide

  31. Visualizers or Verbalizers? Chapter Five Slide

  32. Discussion Question • What advertising media (print, television, Internet, salesperson, POP display, newspaper, radio) is good for a person with a high NFC? Chapter Five Slide

  33. Big Five Personality Scale • Extraversion. Broad dimension encompassing more specific traits as talkative, energetic, and assertive. • Agreeableness. Includes traits like sympathetic, kind, and affectionate. • Conscientiousness. Includes traits like organized, thorough, and planful. • Neuroticism (reversal = Emotional Stability). Includes traits like tense, moody, and anxious. • Openness to Experience (aka Intellect/Imagination). Includes traits like having wide interests, and being imaginative and insightful.

  34. Explaining the Big 5 • Five-Factor Theory, (McCrae and Costa, 2008 Handbook of Personality), is an explanatory account of the role of the Big Five factors in personality. • propositions about the nature, origins, and developmental course of personality traits • relation of traits to many of the other personality variables. • presents a biological account of personality traits, in which learning and experience play little if any part in influencing the Big Five.

  35. Explaining the Big 5 • .Social Investment Theory (Roberts) or other theories suggest • environmental influences, such as social roles, combine and interact with biological influences in shaping personality traits • Ex: Lew Goldberg's set of 100 trait-descriptive adjectives. • More info available at: http://pages.uoregon.edu/sanjay/bigfive.html

  36. From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption Chapter Five Slide

  37. From Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption • Fixated consumption behavior • Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products • Characteristics • Passionate interest in a product category • Willingness to go to great lengths to secure objects • Dedication of time and money to collecting • Compulsive consumption behavior • “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers • May require counseling, intervention, or treatment Chapter Five Slide

  38. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Cosmopolitanism • Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products because of the impact on the economy • They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes • A cosmopolitan orientation would consider the word to be their marketplace and would be attracted to products from other cultures and countries. Chapter Five Slide

  39. Brand Personality • Personality-like traits associated with brands • Examples • Purdue and freshness • Nike and athlete • BMW is performance driven • Brand personality which is strong and favorable will strengthen a brand but not necessarily demand a price premium Chapter Five Slide

  40. A Brand Personality FrameworkFigure 5.12 Chapter Five Slide

  41. Discussion Questions • Pick three of your favorite food brands. • Describe their personality. Do they have a gender? What personality traits do they have? Chapter Five Slide

  42. Product Anthropomorphism andBrand Personification • Product Anthropomorphism • Attributing human characteristics to objects • Tony the Tiger and Mr. Peanut • Brand Personification • Consumer’s perception of brand’s attributes for a human-like character • Mr. Coffee is seen as dependable, friendly, efficient, intelligent and smart. 42 Chapter Five Slide

  43. Linking Products to Lifestyles

  44. Lifestyle/Personality Variables for Soup

  45. Product Personality Issues • Gender • Some products perceived as masculine (coffee and toothpaste) while others as feminine (bath soap and shampoo) • Geography • Actual locations, like Philadelphia cream cheese and Arizona iced tea • Fictitious names also used, such as Hidden Valley and Bear Creek • Color • Color combinations in packaging and products denotes personality Chapter Five Slide

  46. Self and Self-Image • Consumers have a variety of enduring images of themselves • These images are associated with personality in that individuals’ consumption relates to self-image Chapter Five Slide

  47. One or Multiple Selves • A single consumer will act differently in different situations or with different people • We have a variety of social roles • Marketers can target products to a particular “self” 47 Chapter Five Slide

  48. Makeup of the Self-Image • Contains traits, skills, habits, possessions, relationships, and way of behavior • Developed through background, experience, and interaction with others • Consumers select products congruent with this image 48 Chapter Five Slide

  49. Multiple Selves • Each of us has many selves and roles • Marketers pitch products needed to facilitate an active role identities Sister Woman Friend Wife Spokesperson Pro athlete Mother American citizen

  50. Self-Consciousness • Self-consciousness: awareness of self • Researchers say that those who score high in: • Public self-consciousness are more interested in clothing and use more cosmetics • Self-monitoring are attuned to how they present themselves in social environments