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Chunyan Shao (Shandong University). Lesson 11 Four Laws of Ecology (1) ---Barry Commoner. Introuduction. Organization. The First Law Part I (p. 4-9) The stabilization of the self-balancing system Part II (p. 10-11) The danger of collapse

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  • The First Law
  • Part I (p. 4-9) The stabilization of the self-balancing system
  • Part II (p. 10-11) The danger of collapse
  • Part III (p. 12-16) The rate of its turnover and the complexity of the system determines the extent it can bear stress.
  • Part IV (p. 17) The amplification of a small perturbation
p 1 lps question
P. 1 LPs & Question
  • In outline---generally speaking
  • Niche---A situation or an activity specially suited to a person's interests, abilities, or nature
  • Immediate---Close at hand; near
  • What is this paragraph about?
  • The interaction within the environmental cycle
  • What is a life process composed of?
  • --respiration, nutrition, growth, moving, being sensitive or responding, excretion, reproduction
p 2 lps
P. 2 LPs
  • Intricate---Having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate.
  • Pollen---花粉
  • Fungi---真菌类
  • Degrade---To cause (an organic compound) to undergo degradation
  • Make up---put together, construct / compose
p 2 analysis
P. 2 Analysis
  • Outline the linkage among species
  • insects

blood juice/pollen

mountain lion deer plants bacteria

internal tissue organic waste


p 3 lps questions
P. 3 LPs & Questions
  • Explicitly---fully and clearly
  • Cohesive---well-integrated
  • Exemplify---To serve as an example of
  • Why is ecology a young science?
  • --a small section of the network
  • --no cohesive, simplifying generalizations
ps 4 5 lps
Ps. 4 & 5 LPs
  • Population--- All the organisms that constitute a specific group or occur in a specified habitat.
  • Multiple--- manifold
  • Act on—have an effect on
  • Picture---describe
  • Cybernetics---控制论The theoretical study of communication and control processes in biological, mechanical, and electronic systems, especially the comparison of these processes in biological and artificial systems.
  • Owe to--- be indebted to
p 6 lps questions
P. 6 LPs & Questions
  • Helmsman---A person who steers a ship
  • Rudder--- 舵, 方向舵
  • Veer---To turn aside from a course, direction, or purpose; swerve
  • Deflect---To turn aside or cause to turn aside; bend or deviate
  • What is this paragraph about?
  • How does cybernetics work?
p 6 analysis cybernetics
P. 6 Analysis: Cybernetics
  • Ship off-course
  • Needle
  • Interpreted by helmsman
  • Rudder turned rudder turned too far
  • Ship swung back ship swung excessively
  • Needle in position needle deflected
  • Interpreted by helmsman
  • rudder turned
  • ship swung back
  • needle in position
ps 8 9
Ps. 8 & 9
  • Unwavering---resolute, not hesitant
  • Agent---A force or substance that causes a change
  • Oscillate---To swing back and forth with a steady, uninterrupted rhythm
  • Periodic---Having or marked by repeated cycles
  • Die off---To undergo a sudden, sharp decline in population
p 9 questions analysis
P. 9 Questions & Analysis
  • Describe the relation between rabbits and lynx in your own words.
  • Ten-year fluctuation
  • Many rabbits—lynx prosper—rising population—increasingly ravage—reducing rabbit—scarce—insufficient food—numerous lynx—die off—less fiercely hunted—increase in number
  • Oscillation, positively / negatively related
  • What specific words does the author use to refer to the big and small number of the animal?
  • Adverb, verb, adjective, phrase, noun
ps 4 9 the stabilization of the system by its self compensating properties
Ps. (4-9): The stabilization of the system by its self-compensating properties
  • Law: interconnection (p. 4)
  • Example: cybernetics (p. 5-6)
  • Our issue: ecological cycle (p.7)
  • Features of the system: example (p. 8)
  • Feature (p. 9)
p 10 analysis
P. 10 Analysis
  • Under what conditions will the system collapse?
  • The words to describe the negative effect
  • Eat all—no longer reproduce—starve—consumed—drop—die off
p 11 lps
P. 11 LPs
  • Eutrophication--n.富(养)化作用; 水体加富过程
  • a process by which pollution from such sources as sewage effluent or leachate from fertilized fields causes a lake, pond, or fen to become overrich in organic and mineral nutrients, so that algae and cyanobacteria grow rapidly and deplete the oxygen supply
  • Intrinsic-- Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing; inherent.
  • Die back-- The gradual dying of plant shoots, starting at the tips, as a result of various diseases or climatic conditions.
  • Debris--The scattered remains of something broken or destroyed; rubble or wreckage
  • Decay--To break down into component parts; rot
p 11 analysis
P. 11 Analysis
  • How does eutrophication lead to aquatic collapse?
  • Nutrient level in water—rapid growth of algae—algae density / thickness increases—light sharply diminished—strong overgrowth of algae—die back—organic debris great—decay depletes oxygen—bacteria of decay die off—aquatic collapse
  • Words used to describe the process
p 10 analysis1
P 10: Analysis
  • The overstress of properties lead to collapse
  • P. 10: Structure
  • Law: out of balance (S. 1)
  • Example: Lynx eat up rabbits (S. 2)
  • Deduction: no longer reproduce (S. 3)
  • Analysis: Starve, no compensation (S. 4)
  • Result: Lynx die off (S. 5)
  • Consequence: The system collapse (S. 6)
ps 12 13 analysis
Ps. 12 & 13 Analysis
  • How does the author express time duration?
  • Frequency
  • Speed
  • Rate
  • Swings in fractions of a second (V+Prep P)
  • Takes some seconds (V+ Object)
  • Respond over a time of minutes (V+Prep P)
  • The time be some months (NP)
  • A matter of days (be+NP)
  • Reproduce in a few days (V+Prep P)
p 14 lps
P. 14 LPs
  • Turnover-- The number of workers hired by an establishment to replace those who have left in a given period of time
  • Dump-- To release or throw down in a large mass
  • Exceed—surpass
  • Intrude—enter as an improper element
p 14 analysis deviation from normal
P. 14 Analysis: deviation from normal
  • How is this paragraph organized?
  • What can we learn about writing from this paragraph?
  • What is the Law (S2)?
  • What is the SpecificRule (S3)?
  • What will happen in Idealized situation( S4)?
  • What might be the Problem( S5)?
  • How does Reasoning / deduction( S6) work?
  • What Result (S7) will that cause?
  • Then what Conclusion (S8) can be drawn?
  • Why (S9)?
p 14 writing assignment
P. 14 Writing assignment
  • What will happen if someone breaks the law?
p 15 lps questions
P. 15 LPs & Questions
  • Marine--Of or relating to the sea
  • Shoreline--The edge of a body of water
  • Alfalfa--[植]紫花苜蓿
  • In what ways are ecosystems differ?
  • Which turns over faster, the aquatic or soil ecosystem?
  • How many times does aquatic ecosystem produce more organic material than soil ecosystem does?
  • How much more does aquatic ecosystem produce organic material than soil ecosystem does?
  • Why does the soil cycle turn over more slowly?
p 16 lps
P. 16 LPs
  • Pathway--A course usually followed by a body part or process
  • Crisscross--To move back and forth through or over
  • Fabric--A complex underlying structure
  • Strand-- rope, thread, or yarn
  • Vulnerable--Susceptible to attack
p 16 analysis writing
P. 16 Analysis: Writing
  • What writing strategy can we learn from the paragraph?
  • Law (Determinant of amount of stress)
  • Explanation (the more…the more…)
  • Example (Lynx-rabbit)
  • How does the example Support the topic?
  • Reality: More complex
  • Example (net-strand)
  • Analogy to our topic (environment-net)
ps 12 16 rate of turnover and complexity of system determines its capacity to stress
Ps. 12-16: Rate of turnover and complexity of system determines its capacity to stress.
  • Feature: Rate of constituents determines the behavior of the system (p. 12-13)
  • Idealized situation: The slowest rate maintain the whole system (p. 14)
  • Second feature: Rate differs and points of collapse differ (p. 15):
  • Another feature: complexity determines the capacity (p. 16)
p 17 lps
P. 17 LPs
  • Amplify-- To make larger or more powerful; increase
  • Magnitude—greatness in size, extent, etc.
  • Oxidize– To combine with oxygen; make into an oxide
  • Incorporate--To cause to merge or combine together into a united whole
  • Earthworm--蚯蚓
  • Woodcock--[鸟] 鸟鹬
p 17 analysis writing strategy
P. 17 Analysis: Writing strategy
  • Law:feedback and intensification (topic)
  • Example: Law: food chain (small-bigger)
  • Problem (greater amount)
  • Result (greater demand)
  • Problem (concentration on top)
  • Result (explain the topic)
p 18 lp analysis
P. 18 LP & Analysis
  • Perturbation--The state of being perturbed; agitation
  • How is everything connected to everything else?
p 19 lps
P. 19: LPs
  • Indestructible--Impossible to destroy
  • Excrete--To separate and discharge (waste matter) from the blood, tissues, or organs
  • Respiratory--Of, relating to, used in, or affecting respiration
  • Nitrate--[化]硝酸盐, 硝酸钾
  • Phosphate--磷酸盐
p 20 lps
P. 20 LPs
  • Surface--To emerge after concealment
  • Incinerator--One that incinerates, especially an apparatus, such as a furnace, for burning waste
  • Emit—give or send out matter or energy
  • Stack--A chimney or flue
  • Toxic—poisonous
  • Condense--To become more compact
  • Convert—change or transform
  • Methyl--甲基:单价碳氢基
  • Soluble--That can be dissolved, especially easily dissolved
  • Deposit--To lay down or leave behind by a natural process
p 20 analysis
P. 20 Analysis
  • Trace the path of the mercury
  • Battery—container of rubbish—incinerator—vapor—rain/snow—earth—lake—fish—man
  • What verbs does the author use to describe the process?
  • Place—collect—take—heat—produce—emit—carry—bring—enter—condense—sink—act on—convert—take up—metabolize—accumulate—catch—eat--deposit
p 21 lps
P. 21 LPs
  • Counteract--To oppose and mitigate the effects of by contrary action; check
  • Prevalent--Widely or commonly occurring, existing, accepted, or practiced
  • Extract--To obtain from a substance by chemical or mechanical action, as by pressure, distillation, or evaporation
  • Discharge--
conclusion writing strategy
Conclusion: Writing strategy
  • Definition
  • Analogy
  • Examples
  • Pattern
  • General law
  • Specific rule
  • Example
  • Issue
  • Problem
  • Result
  • Conclusion