Review of the Ecology Unit. Post Falls High School Biology. What is Ecology? The. Ecology- the study of interactions between organisms and organisms organisms and their environment. Where do we fit in? (What is our environment?). The Biosphere!. Factors that effect us:.
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Review of the Ecology Unit Post Falls High School Biology
What is Ecology? The
Ecology- • the study of interactions between • organisms and organisms • organisms and their environment
Where do we fit in? (What is our environment?) The Biosphere!
Factors that effect us: 1. Abiotic Factors Moisture Wind/Air currents Light Temperature Soil
A- stands for non • Bio- stands for living • Abiotic Factors- nonliving factors
What is the organization of Ecological Study? Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere
Levels of Organization • Individual- one organism (living) • Ex a moose
Levels of Organization • Population- groups of individuals that belong to the species and live in the same area. (living-living same species) • Ex many moose
Levels of Organization • Community- groups of different populations (more than one population or different groups of species) Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass (all living)
Levels of Organization • Ecosystem- all organisms in a particular area along with the nonliving. (living and nonliving) Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass, rocks, water, mountains
Levels of Organization • Biome- group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities • Biomes: tropical rain forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savannah, temperate grassland, desert, temperate woodland and shrubland, temperate forest, northwestern coniferous forest, boreal forest (taiga), tundra, mountains and ice caps
Levels of Organization • Biosphere- all of the planet where life exhists, includes land, water, and, air • Life extends 8 km up and 11 km below the surface
IN AN ECOSYSTEM: Organisms live in a Habitat Organisms fit into a Niche of the environment
Habitat vs. Niche • Habitat- an area where an organism lives • Niche- an organisms role in its environment • The Long Version full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions. Includes where in the food chain it is, where an organism feeds • Habitat is like an address in an ecosystem and a niche is like an occupation in an ecosystem.
Community Interactions • when organisms live together in an ecological community they interact constantly. • Three types of interactions • Competition • Predation • Symbiosis
Competition- competing for resources • occurs due to a limited number of resources • Resource- any necessity of life. water, nutrients, light, food. • Competitive exclusion principle- no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
Predation • Predation- when an organism captures and feeds on another organism. • Predator- hunter • Prey- hunted
Symbiosis • Symbiosis- any relationship where two species live closely together. (3 types) • Mutualism • Commensalism • Parasitism
Symbiosis • Mutualism- both species benefit from a relationship. • Lichens (fungus and Algae) One example is the lichens, little non-descript patches of stuff you see growing on rocks and tree bark. This is a symbiosis, consisting of a fungus and an alga. The fungus provides a protective home for the algae, and gathers mineral nutrients from rainwater and from dissolving the rock underneath. The alga gathers energy from the sun. There are thousands of species of lichen in the world; actually thousands of species of fungi with just a few species of algae which can form a partnership with almost any of them.
Symbiosis • Commensalism – One member of a symbiotic relationship benefits and the other is neither helped or harmed • Ex. Holes used by bluebirds in a tree were chiseled out by woodpeckers after it has been abandoned .
Symbiosis • Parasitism- One creature benefits and one creature is harmed • Ex tapeworm. Feeds in a humans intestines absorbing his/her nutrients.
Relationships: Symbiosis = Living Together a) commensalism b) mutualism c) parasitism
ENERGY FLOW Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs
Producers- make their own food Consumers- get energy from consuming producers Energy Flow (Trophic Levels)
Producers • Producers- capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use the energy to produce food. • Producers are autotrophs- they make food from their environment
One type gets energy from the sun-by photosynthesis Another type gets energy without light- by chemosynthesis 2 main types of autotrophs
Consumers • Consumers are heterotrophs- get energy from other organisms
Types of Consumers • Herbivores- eat only plants • Carnivores- eat animals • Omnivores- eat both plants and animals • Detritivores- eat dead matter (plants and animals)
Feeding Relationships • Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from: • 1. the sun or inorganic compounds • 2. To autotrophs (producers) • 3. To heterotrophs (consumers) • Decomposers get energy from decomposing dead organisms
Food Chain- a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten. Food Web- A network of feeding relationships. (More realistic that a food chain)
Trophic levels • Each step in a food chain or a food web is called a trophic level. • Producers are the first trophic level • Consumers are the second, third, or higher trophic level • Each trophic level depends on the one below for energy
Energy Pyramid • Only part of the energy stored in one level can be passed to the next- most energy is consumed for life processes (respiration, movement, etc., and heat is given off) • Only 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms in the next trophic level
Biomass Pyramid • Biomass- the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level. • A biomass pyramid represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem.
Energy Losses • Energy transfers are never 100 percent efficient • Some energy is lost at each step • Limits the number of trophic levels in an ecosystem • Energy flow is a one way path! (not a cycle)
All Heat in the End • At each trophic level, the bulk of the energy received from the previous level is used in metabolism • This energy is released as heat energy and lost to the ecosystem • Eventually, all energy is released as heat
Biogeochemical Cycles(Matter moving through the environment) • All living organisms need certain elements/compounds for life processes • Ex: your cells need C,H,O,P,N & S in order to live and reproduce (make more cell) • Cycles in nature keep these elements “moving” from organisms to organism (and sometimes into the atmosphere)
Biogeochemical Cycles(Matter moving through the environment) • The flow of a nutrient from the environment to living organisms and back to the environment • Main reservoir for the nutrient is in the environment • Transfer rates to and from reservoir are usually lower than the rates of exchange between and among organisms. • Matter is recycled through an ecosystem – not one way flow
Three Categories • Hydrologic cycle • Water • Atmospheric cycles • Nitrogen and carbon • Sedimentary cycles • Phosphorus and sulfur
Carbon Cycle • Carbon moves through the atmosphere and food webs on its way to and from the ocean, sediments, and rocks • Sediments and rocks are the main reservoir