Molecular Basis of Peptide Hormone Production. Understanding Regulation of Hormone Levels How to Make a Peptide: Basic Steps Cell Structures Involved in Peptide Production Gene Structure and Transcription Processing of RNA Transcripts Translation of mRNA into Peptide
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Understanding Regulation of Hormone Levels
How to Make a Peptide: Basic Steps
Cell Structures Involved in Peptide Production
Gene Structure and Transcription
Processing of RNA Transcripts
Translation of mRNA into Peptide
Post-translational Processing of Peptides
Secretion of Peptide Hormones
- rate of hormone synthesis
- rate of hormone release (from endocrine gland)
- presence of binding proteins in blood
- speed of degradation/removal (circulating half-life)
gene for peptide (DNA)
primary RNA transcript
mature (active) peptide
- regulation: you can control whether you proceed to the next step or not
- variation: you can change not only whether or not a step occurs, but the way in which it occurs. This can result in production of peptides with different activities, from a single gene.
Example: By regulating how luteinizing hormone is glycosylated (post-translational modification step), you can create LH molecules with different biological activities.
- TATAA box: 25-30 bases upstream from initiation start site. Binds RNA polymerase II. Basic stuff required for transcription.
- CCAAT (CAT) box: binds CTF proteins
- Tissue-/cell-specific elements: limit expression to certain cell types
- response elements (enhancers): allow high degree of regulation of expression rate in a given tissue (ie, steroid response elements, cAMP-response element [CRE])
- 5’ untranslated region
- protein coding sequence
- 3’ untranslated region
- allows alternative splicing of RNA into different mRNA forms (stay tuned…).
- introns may regulate process of transcription
binding proteinRegulation of mRNA Stability
Other “special” codons: UAA, UAG, UGA = termination codons (translation ends)
mRNA on ribosome
export from cell
Inhibin alphaProcessing of Prohormones