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Ch. 8 PPT Notes America Secedes From the Empire. Loyalists. Timeline. April,1775 - The Battle of Lexington and Concord May, 1775 – 2 nd Continental Congress June, 1775 - The Battle of Bunker Hill Jan., 1776 - Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense

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April,1775 - The Battle of Lexington and Concord

May, 1775 – 2nd Continental Congress

June, 1775 - The Battle of Bunker Hill

Jan., 1776 - Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense

July, 1776 - Congress approves Declaration Of Independence

Sept.-Oct., 1777 – Battle of Saratoga

March, 1781 – Articles of Confederation Adopted

Oct. 1781 – Battle of Yorktown

Sept., 1783 - Treaty of Paris is signed

Sept., 1787 – U.S. Constitution signed

June, 1788 – U.S. Constitution adopted

the first shots fired
The First Shots Fired
  • Lexington & Concord, MA-April 1775
    • British given secret orders to capture/destroy military supplies stored by the MA militia. Patriots knew and moved most of the supplies.
    • Patriots knew about the order and had moved the supplies
    • “Minute Men”: The American colonial militia - Highly mobile and rapidly deployed.
    • 70 redcoats killed (British Regulars)
patriots whigs
Patriots (Whigs)
  • Patriots: Colonists who supported the Revolution – to become independent; AKA - Whigs.
  • Were generally young & not afraid to take risks
  • Mostly in New England (Presbyterians and Congregationalists).
  • Able to recruit colonists for the cause
  • Harassed the British and Loyalists
  • Areas: Virginia, New England, and parts of Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New York


  • Strongholds
  • Close to 20% of the population stayed loyal to the King of England
loyalists loyal to king george iii
Loyalists: Loyal to King George III
  • Loyalists = Tories: generally conservative, educated, wealthy, older generation, Anglican clergy, King’s officers and other officials of the crown
  • About 20% of the population

-some served as spies

-persecuted, tar & feathered, hanged, imprisoned, estates sold and forced to flee

Areas: New York City, Charleston, Quaker Pennsylvania, New Jersey.


Suport for the British


Native Americans

  • King George III, (grandfather from Germany) hired German mercenaries called Hessians from the principalityof Hesse.
  • Most tribes, such as the Iroquois, sided with the British because they were fearful of American expansion into the West.
battles of fort ticonderoga and crown point
Battles of Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point
  • May, 1775 - Ethan Allen + Benedict Arnold capture the British

garrisonsat Ft. Ticonderoga and Crown Point in New York

the 2nd continental congress may 10 1775
The 2nd Continental Congress May 10, 1775
  • All 13 colonies represented
  • Declaration of the Causes & Necessity of Taking Up Arms
  • Adopted measures to raise money and create an army/navy
  • July 1775: Olive Branch Petition – Profess loyalty to England to avoid all out war.
    • Pleaded for cease-fire and agreed to remain loyal toKing George III but was ignored by British.
  • Drafted the Articles of Confederation
  • Drafted the Declaration of Independence
  • Chose G. Washington to lead the army
2 nd continental congress drafts george washington
2nd Continental Congress Drafts George Washington
  • Chose Washington for Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army
  • Had lost more battles than he had won.
  • Outstanding leadership skills and strength of character
  • People trusted him
battle of bunker hill june 1775
Battle of Bunker Hill: June 1775
  • Fought near Boston, Mass.
  • Colonists seized hill, actually was Breed’s Hill
  • Colonists ran out of gun powder and forced to abandon.
  • After this battle, King George III closed the possibility of reconciliation – proclaiming the colonies in rebellion – Treason.
thomas paine preaches common sense
Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense
  • Americans still (at this point) had loyalty to England.
  • But, eventually they realized the need to gain independence
  • Radical path for the colonies to reject monarchy and embrace an independent republic.
  • The Common Sense pamphlet (Jan. 1776) called for a republic: power to come from the people, not from a monarch
  • Authority should come from popular consent

“Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation”

On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress accepted Richard Henry Lee’s proposed independencefrom England in a document called Lee’s Resolution
thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • Drafted the Declaration of Independence: adopted by Congress July 4, 1776.
  • Invoking the “Natural rights” of human kind.
  • He wrote “all men are created equal,” even though he had slaves.
  • A formal declaration for independence.
declaration of independence july 4 1776
Declaration of IndependenceJuly 4, 1776
  • Was based on philosophy of the Enlightenment
  • 3 Major Parts:

1).Preamble - influenced by John Locke

2).List of 27 grievances against King: taxation without consent, dispensing with trial by jury, maintaining a standing army in peacetime, cutting off trade, hiring mercenaries, inciting Indian hostilities, etc.

3).Formal declaration of independence

  • Result: Foreign aid could now be successfully solicited
  • Document inspired French Revolution and others
colonist advantages and disadvantages
Colonists Advantages

Knew the terrain

Help from French, Spain, Holland

Didn’t have to conquer the British, they just had to wear them down

Used hit-and-run tactics

War was unpopular in Britain

Hessian soldiers didn’t “buy-in” – hundreds deserted

Prussian drillmaster Baron von Steuben helped train colonial army

Colonists Disadvantages

Britain had the world’s largest navy

British army well-trained

Navy was well-supplied ($$$)

Loyalists helped the British

Colonist Advantages and Disadvantages
battle of long island
Battle of Long Island
  • New York July 1776: British fleet of 500 ships with 35,000 men led by British General Howe. British won the Battle of Long Island.
  • George Washington only had 18,000 ill-trained troops. He retreated across the Delaware River.

Battle of Trenton (New Jersey Campaign)

  • Dec. 1776: Washington re-crosses the Delaware River, surprises and captures 1,000 Hessians at the Battle of Trenton.

Phase II:

NY & PA[1777-1778]

the battle of saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga
  • British General Burgoyne attempts to capture the Hudson River.
  • British Burgoyne surrendered entire command at Saratoga in Oct. 1777.
  • This colonial win made it possible for France to provide aid to the colonies.

The Battle was an Important Turning Point in the War:

    • Benjamin Franklin goes to Paris to negotiate a treaty of alliance with France, 1778
    • French aid: guns, money, equipment, troops, and naval strength
    • 1779: Aid from Spain and Holland
    • America started to win
    • Marquis de Lafayette: Helped the Patriots train

at Valley Forge

france becomes most important american ally why become an ally
France Becomes Most Important American Ally: (Why Become an Ally?)
  • Revenge on British for Seven Year’s War
  • Victory at Saratoga showed ability of the colonists to beat the British
  • Promised recognition of American independence
  • Marquis de Lafayette also convinced the French government to back the Patriots
valley forge1
Valley Forge
  • Washington’s men were tired, hungry, frostbitten
  • Feb 1778, Baron Fredrick Von Steuben, Prussian Drillmaster, shaped them into a professional army

Colonial General Benedict Arnold became a Traitor: schemed to sell out the key stronghold of West Point, which commanded the Hudson River, to the British for £6,300 and an officer’s commission.

View of West Point, NY Before 1802 Unknown

Oil, c. 1785  

american commander john paul jones
American Commander John Paul Jones
  • Father of the American Navy
  • Battle of Bonhomme (Bonami) Richard vs. Serapis in the North Sea
    • Chief contribution: destroying British merchant shipping
    • Didn’t affect British navy
  • American Privateers: privately owned ships authorized by Congress to attack British ships – captured 100’s of British merchant ships.
  • Brought in gold and helped American morale
frontier campaigns
Frontier Campaigns
  • Control west of Appalachian Mountains
  • Cherokees attacked in the south
  • Iroquois led by Chief Joseph Brandt raided western New York

General Nathanial Greene, the “fighting Quaker”, exhausted his foe by “standing and retreating”and succeeded in clearing GA and SC of most British Troops.

battle of yorktown1
Battle of Yorktown
  • Last major battle of the war.
  • French Admiral de Grasse - blockaded Chesapeake Bay. British Ships unable to enter.
  • Washington made a 300 mile march to Chesapeake from NY.
  • With Rochambeau’s French Army, Washington attacked British Army by land and French Admiral de Grasse attacked by sea.
  • Oct. 1781: British General Charles Cornwallis surrendered his force of 7,000 men
  • War continued for 1 more year
towards peace
Towards Peace
  • Lord North’s political party collapsed 1782
  • New Whig ministry more sympathetic to Americans came into power
  • U.S. & Britain sign preliminary treaty in 1782
  • Signed September 3rd

**Britain formally recognizes U.S. independence!

treaty of paris of 1783
Treaty of Paris of 1783
  • Britain formally recognized independence of U.S.
  • British to remove troops and lose territory.
  • Americans must pay loyalists and British creditors (but some states never did)
  • Colonists gain more land: trans-Appalachian area – included land up to the Mississippi River.
  • American concessions: loyalists couldn’t be prosecuted, loyalist property was restored.
  • Spain got Florida